2012年09月28日

サイコパスの素質 成功した大統領の共通点は何か


Psychopathic Traits: What Successful Presidents Have in Common
( TIME )

Political partisans delight in labeling opposition leaders as malign
or even psychopathic -- but it turns out that U.S. presidents with
high levels of certain psychopathic traits may actually do better on
the job, no matter what their party affiliation, according to new
research.

The study, which was based on presidential performance ratings and
personality assessments by hundreds of historians and biographers in
several different surveys, found that one psychopathic characteristic
in particular was linked to success in presidency: fearless dominance.

It’s not to say that American presidents are full-blown psychopaths
-- they didn’t rate high in all categories of psychopathic traits.
Overall, the study found, presidents tended to be more like
psychopaths than the general population in their level of fearless
dominance, but they didn’t show a psychopathic excess of impulsive
antisocial behavior. Although “some might think presidents are
extremely psychopathic,” Lilienfeld says, the combination of traits
that make them successful can’t all be characterized as such. “They
need to be bold and self confident to be willing to run, but they
also have to have an amazing capacity to delay gratification and a
lot of impulse control, at least in some domains.”

Topping the chart in fearless dominance were Teddy Roosevelt and John
F. Kennedy, with FDR, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton not far behind.
George W. Bush came in 10th on this measure -- Rutherford Hayes,
Zachary Taylor, Martin Van Buren and Andrew Jackson were also in the
top 10 -- illustrating that fearless dominance isn’t always
associated with positive decision-making, or success.

Indeed, it’s a double-edged sword: if your boldness allows you to
ignore both your own fears and the concerns of others, it can be easy
to veer off into recklessness, dismissing important problems that
should rightly grab your attention. A recent New York Times op-ed on
George W. Bush’s refusal to heed early warnings from the CIA about
Osama bin Laden’s planned attacks on America suggests as much.

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 米国 | このブログの読者になる |

2012年09月25日

クリントン元大統領が楽観主義を弁護する


The Case for Optimism
( TIME )

Our world is more interdependent than ever. Borders have become more
like nets than walls, and while this means that wealth, ideas,
information and talent can move freely around the globe, so can the
negative forces shaping our shared fates. The financial crisis that
started in the U.S. and swept the globe was further proof that--for
better and for worse--we can't escape one another.

There are three big challenges with our interdependent world:
inequality, instability and unsustainability. The fact that half the
world's people live on less than $2 a day and a billion people on
less than $1 a day is stark evidence of inequality, which is
increasing in many places. We're feeling the effects of instability
not only in the global economic slowdown but also in the violence,
popular disruptions and political conflicts in the Middle East and
elsewhere. And the way we produce and use energy is unsustainable,
changing our climate in ways that cast a shadow over our children's
future.

But I firmly believe that progress changes consciousness, and when
you change people's consciousness, then their awareness of what is
possible changes as well--a virtuous circle. So it's important that
the word gets out, that people realize what's working. That where
there's been creative cooperation coupled with a communitarian view
of our future, we're seeing real success. That's the reason I try to
bring people together every year for the Clinton Global Initiative
(CGI). Here are five areas in which there has been concrete,
measurable and reproducible progress.

1 TECHNOLOGY

PHONES MEAN FREEDOM

Forget what you may have heard about a digital divide or worries that
the world is splintering into "info haves" and "info have-nots." The
fact is, technology fosters equality, and it's often the relatively
cheap and mundane devices that do the most good. A 2010 U.N. study,
for example, found that cell phones are one of the most effective
advancements in history to lift people out of poverty.

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 米国 | このブログの読者になる |

2012年09月21日

日本の苛立ち 中国紛争で米国は支援してくれるのか


Japan Frets over U.S. Support in China Dispute
( TIME )

When the U.S. Defense Secretary arrives in Asia this weekend, his
biggest challenge may not be convincing China that America will give
its full support to longtime ally Japan in the escalating dispute
over islands in the East China Sea. His biggest challenge may be
convincing Japan.

“There is a perception in Japan that the U.S. commitment is
ambiguous,” says Yoichiro Sato, director of international strategic
studies at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University in southern Japan.
“If China thinks Japan will hesitate to respond or that America will
hesitate, that will embolden the Chinese. It’s better that America
sends a clear, explicit message now than have to respond to something
worse later.”

Officially, the U.S. takes no position on the Senkaku-Diaoyu dispute
or the many other conflicting territorial claims that are upsetting
the region. Under the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty, the U.S. is
obligated to respond to any attack on Japan or its territory. Pressed
to declare whether that security umbrella includes Senkaku/Diaoyu,
U.S. officials stated publicly that the treaty applies to “all areas
under Japanese administration” -- a seemingly clear nod to
Senkaku/Diaoyu.

But Sato says that’s not clear enough. The alliance also calls for
Japan to take “primary responsibility” for territorial defense.
That could give the U.S. a loophole to avoid confronting its most
important trading partner and leave Japan on its own, he says.

Brad Glosserman, executive director of the Pacific Forum CSIS in
Honolulu, says there’s little doubt that the U.S. would respond if
shooting were to break out between China and Japan. The key,
Glosserman says, is to make sure the Japanese know exactly what they
can count on from the U.S. -- and what, if anything, they can’t.

“The U.S. will be there, because if we aren’t, our credibility is
shot and the Japanese will never trust us again. That would transform
the regional security environment, and the Chinese will think they
have carte blanche,” says Glosserman. “But the problem is, do
Americans and Japanese agree on what ‘being there’ means? Does that
mean submarines? Surface warships? Helicopters with Marines
rappelling to the ground? The Americans need to understand what the
Japanese expect of them, because failure to do those things could
cause big problems.”

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 日本 | このブログの読者になる |

2012年09月18日

「サム・バジーレ」の友人たち 映画「イノセンス・オブ・ムスリム」人名録


Friends of 'Sam Bacile': A Who's Who of the Innocence of Muslims Film
( TIME )

An Internet clip of an amateurish, virulently anti-Muslim film called
Innocence of Muslims is being identified as one of the flash points
behind the anti-U.S. demonstrations in the Middle East that led to
the death of Ambassador Chris Stevens and three others in Benghazi,
Libya, earlier this week. As journalists work to uncover more details
about the makers of the film, here’s what we know about the cast of
characters so far:

Sam Bacile

In July, a person working under this pseudonym posted a 14-minute
trailer for Innocence of Muslims on YouTube. It was widely thought to
be the filmmaker’s real name, after a man identifying himself as Sam
Bacile spoke to both the Associated Press and the Wall Street Journal
on Tuesday. Bacile identified himself as a California-based real
estate developer, either 52 or 56 years old, and claimed he was both
the writer and director of the film.

“Islam is a cancer,” he repeated to both publications. He said he
was an Israeli American who filmed and produced the two-hour movie
last year in California. Funding for the movie, he explained, came
from 100 Jewish donors, who pitched in a total of $5 million.

Public-records searches by TIME and others have yielded nothing
tangible about a Sam Bacile in California, leading many to conclude
that the name is a pseudonym. The Israeli government said it has no
record of Bacile as a citizen. Steve Klein (see below), a backer and
purported consultant on the film, told the Atlantic he was neither
Israeli nor Jewish. “This guy is totally anonymous. At this point,
no one can confirm he holds Israeli citizenship, and even if he did,
we are not involved,” Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal
Palmor told CNN.

The film allegedly calls the holy Muslim Prophet Muhammad a fraud and
shows him engaged in sex acts. Muslims believe it’s inappropriate to
depict the Prophet under any circumstances, especially insulting
ones. (In 2005, a Danish newspaper published caricatures of Muhammad
that incited riots in many Middle Eastern nations.) But the film only
started riling tempers in the Middle East last week, after the Sam
Bacile YouTube account posted an Arabic translation of the Innocence
of Muslims film.

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 国際 | このブログの読者になる |

2012年09月14日

男が美を求めず、女が富を気にしなくなったとき


When Men Stop Seeking Beauty and Women Care Less About Wealth
( TIME )

Men seek youth and beauty, while women focus on wealth and status --
evolutionary psychologists have long claimed that these general
preferences in human mating are universal and based on biology. But
new research suggests that they may in fact be malleable: as men and
women achieve financial equality, in terms of earning power and
economic freedom, these mate-seeking preferences by gender tend to
wane.

The idea behind the evolutionary theory is simple: biologically,
sperm are cheap -- men make 1,500 sperm per second on average. In
contrast, eggs are expensive; typically, women release just one egg a
month and each baby girl is born with her full lifetime’s supply of
egg cells. (Yes, this means that the egg from which you sprang was
formed inside your maternal grandmother.) What’s more, pregnancy
costs a woman nine months, while the initial male contribution to
parenthood generally requires no more than a few minutes.

As a result, evolutionary theorists argue, women will be far more
selective than men about their sexual partners, and they will tend to
seek those with the most resources to invest in their children. Men,
on the other hand, can afford to be less choosy. They’ll care far
less about a woman’s ability to provide and far more about her basic
signs of fertility, such as her youth and the symmetry of her facial
features -- a characteristic associated with beauty and good health.

But while these mate-seeking preferences may have made sense when
humans first evolved -- and subsequently shaped our unconscious
desires -- the world has changed since our species dwelled in caves.
And so, researchers at the University of York in the U.K. wanted to
know whether factors that characterize modern-day society, such as
women’s increased earning power and status, made a difference.

To figure out if that’s true, the researchers ranked nations
according to a new measure of gender equity introduced by the World
Economic Forum in 2006. Within various societies, they looked for
relationships between the gender gap and how much of a difference
there was between male and female mate preferences. And indeed, the
researchers found, the greater the equality of power between the
genders, the more similar were the traits that both men and women
sought in potential mates. In Finland, the country with the greatest
gender parity among the 10 countries included in the more current of
the two surveys, there was a far smaller difference between male and
female preferences than in Turkey, which had the biggest gender gap.

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 科学 | このブログの読者になる |

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