2012年04月10日

ネイティブのように話す方法


How To Speak Like A Native
( TIME )

Can an adult learn to speak a second language with the accent of a
native? Not likely, but new research suggests that we would make better
progress, and be understood more easily by our conversational partners,
if we abandoned a perfect accent as our goal in the language learning
process.

For decades, traditional language instruction held up native-like
pronunciation as the ideal, enforced by doses of “fear, embarrassment
and conformity,” in the words of Murray J. Munro, a professor of
linguistics at Simon Fraser University in Canada. Munro and a
co-author, University of Alberta linguist Tracy Derwing, argue that
this ideal is “clearly unrealistic,” leading to disappointment and
frustration on the part of most adult language learners. Indeed, a
growing body of evidence points to a “critical period” in childhood
for acquiring correctly accented fluency in a given language; even as
research on neuroplasticity has pushed the limits of what adults can
learn, this boundary has remained stubbornly in place. In light of
these findings, a newer generation of adult foreign-language teachers
has given up pronunciation instruction altogether, assuming it is a
futile effort.

Both of these assumptions are wrongheaded, contend Munro and Derwing.
Pronunciation can be learned -- but it should be learned with the goal
of communicating easily with others, not with achieving a textbook-
perfect accent. Adult students of language should be guided by the
“intelligibility principle,” not the old “nativeness principle.” As
Derwing and Munro note, “even heavily accented speech can be highly
comprehensible.”

Learners guided by the intelligibility principle focus less attention
on individual vowels and consonants, and more attention to the
“macro” aspects of language, such as general speaking habits, volume,
stress, and rhythm. A study by Derwing and colleagues showed that this
approach can work. The investigators divided subjects into three
groups: the first received foreign language instruction with no
particular focus on pronunciation; the second received instruction with
a focus on pronouncing the individual segments of language; and the
third received “global” pronunciation instruction on the general way
the foreign tongue should sound. After 12 weeks of classes, the
students were asked to tell a story in their new language, and their
efforts were rated by native-speaking listeners. Only the global group,
the listeners reported, showed significant improvement in
comprehensibility and fluency.


■ Uh-huh... なるへそ特記事項 ■


■ 1段落目

abandon:捨てる、(中途で)やめる

ここは仮定法過去ですね。「私たちはより大きく進歩するだろう・・・、もしも
私たちが〜の目標としての完璧なアクセントを捨てるなら」


■ 2段落目

dose:(薬の)一服、投薬する

字面とは違って「不愉快な経験をかなりの規模で」という意味です。よく使われ
る用法です。

conformity:適合、一致、服従

critical:批評の、危機の、決定的な、臨界の

ここの文を直訳すると、「実に、成長する証拠の体は、与えられた言語で正しく
アクセントが置かれた流暢さを獲得するための子供時代での『臨界期』を指し示
す」。

stubbornly:頑なに、不屈に

assume:当然のことと思う、(任務・責任などを)とる、引き受ける

次の段落の初めに名詞の「assumption」が出てきます。

futile:役に立たない,むだな


■ 3段落目

intelligibility:理解できること、分かりよいこと

comprehensible:理解できる、分かりよい


■ 4段落目

vowel:母音

consonant:子音

最初の文は、「分かりやすい原則によって手引きされた学習者は、個々の母音と
子音により少ない注意を集中させ、そして言語の『マクロな』相により多くの注
意を集中させる」。


■ さらば日本語ふむふむ読み ■


How To Speak Like A Native
( TIME )


Can an adult learn to speak a second language

with the accent of a native?

Not likely,

but new research suggests

that we would make better progress,

and be understood more easily by our conversational partners,

if we abandoned a perfect accent as our goal

in the language learning process.


For decades,

traditional language instruction held up native-like pronunciation

as the ideal,

enforced by doses of “fear, embarrassment and conformity,”

in the words of Murray J. Munro,

a professor of linguistics at Simon Fraser University in Canada.

Munro and a co-author,

University of Alberta linguist Tracy Derwing,

argue that this ideal is “clearly unrealistic,”

leading to disappointment and frustration

on the part of most adult language learners.

Indeed,

a growing body of evidence points to a “critical period” in childhood

for acquiring correctly accented fluency in a given language;

even as research on neuroplasticity has pushed the limits

of what adults can learn,

this boundary has remained stubbornly in place.

In light of these findings,

a newer generation of adult foreign-language teachers

has given up pronunciation instruction altogether,

assuming it is a futile effort.


Both of these assumptions are wrongheaded,

contend Munro and Derwing.

Pronunciation can be learned --

but it should be learned

with the goal of communicating easily with others,

not with achieving a textbook-perfect accent.

Adult students of language should be guided

by the “intelligibility principle,”

not the old “nativeness principle.”

As Derwing and Munro note,

“even heavily accented speech can be highly comprehensible.”


Learners guided by the intelligibility principle

focus less attention on individual vowels and consonants,

and more attention to the “macro” aspects of language,

such as general speaking habits, volume, stress, and rhythm.

A study by Derwing and colleagues showed

that this approach can work.

The investigators divided subjects into three groups:

the first received foreign language instruction

with no particular focus on pronunciation;

the second received instruction

with a focus on pronouncing the individual segments of language;

and the third received “global” pronunciation instruction

on the general way the foreign tongue should sound.

After 12 weeks of classes,

the students were asked to tell a story in their new language,

and their efforts were rated by native-speaking listeners.

Only the global group,

the listeners reported,

showed significant improvement in comprehensibility and fluency.


■ お帰り日本語ふむなる試訳 ■


ネイティブのように話す方法
(TIME)

大人はネイティブのようなアクセントで第2言語を話せるようになるか。その見
込みは薄いのだが、新しい研究によれば、私たちはもっと上達して、話し相手に
もっと容易に理解してもらえるようになる。私たちが完璧なアクセントという言
語学習過程の目標を捨てた場合だ。

数十年間、伝統的な言語指導はネイティブのような発音を理想として掲げ、それ
は「恐れと恥ずかしさと同一性」という処方により徹底された。その言葉の主の
カナダのサイモン・フレーザー大学の言語学教授Murray J. Munroと、共著者の
アルバータ大学の言語学者Tracy Derwingが主張するように、この理想は「明ら
かに非現実的」で、ほとんどの大人の言語学習者の側に失望と挫折をもたらして
いる。実際に相次ぐ証拠の山が指摘するのは、子供がある言語を正しいアクセン
トで流暢に話せるようになる「臨界期」だ。たとえ神経可塑性の研究が大人が学
べることの限界を押し広げても、この境界は頑としてその場にとどまる。こうし
た発見に照らして、新世代の大人の外国語教師は発音の指導をすっかり諦めた。
無駄な取り組みだと考えたからだ。

これら両方の考えは間違っていると、MunroとDerwingは主張した。確かに、発音
は学ぶことができる。だが、他者と容易にコミュニケーションが取れるというの
を目標に学ぶべきで、教科書のような完璧なアクセントを身につけることであっ
てはならない。大人の言語学徒が手引きとすべきは「了解度原則」であり、古い
「ネイティブ性原則」ではない。DerwingとMunro noteが書くように、「ひどく
訛りの強い話し方でもしっかり理解されるものなのだ」。

了解度原則を手引きにする学習者は、個々の母音や子音に注意を向けるのではな
く言語の「マクロな側面」、たとえば全般的な話し方の傾向、音の大きさ、教勢、
リズムなどに注意を向ける。Derwingと同僚らによる研究は、この方法が有効で
あることを示した。調査員らは被験者を3つのグループに分けた。1番目のグルー
プは発音に特に焦点を合わせない外国語指導を受け、2番目は言語の個々の部分
の発音に焦点を合わせる指導を受け、3番目は全般的に外国語がどのように聞こ
えるかという「グローバルな発音」指導を受けた。12週間の授業の後で、学生ら
には新しい言語で物語を話すことを求め、そしてその取り組みをネイティブ・ス
ピーカーの聞き手が評価した。聞き手の報告では、グローバル・グループだけが
理解力と流暢さに大幅な改善を示した。


■ もう一度ふむなるTIMEしよう! ■


How To Speak Like A Native
( TIME )

Can an adult learn to speak a second language with the accent of a
native? Not likely, but new research suggests that we would make better
progress, and be understood more easily by our conversational partners,
if we abandoned a perfect accent as our goal in the language learning
process.

For decades, traditional language instruction held up native-like
pronunciation as the ideal, enforced by doses of “fear, embarrassment
and conformity,” in the words of Murray J. Munro, a professor of
linguistics at Simon Fraser University in Canada. Munro and a
co-author, University of Alberta linguist Tracy Derwing, argue that
this ideal is “clearly unrealistic,” leading to disappointment and
frustration on the part of most adult language learners. Indeed, a
growing body of evidence points to a “critical period” in childhood
for acquiring correctly accented fluency in a given language; even as
research on neuroplasticity has pushed the limits of what adults can
learn, this boundary has remained stubbornly in place. In light of
these findings, a newer generation of adult foreign-language teachers
has given up pronunciation instruction altogether, assuming it is a
futile effort.

Both of these assumptions are wrongheaded, contend Munro and Derwing.
Pronunciation can be learned -- but it should be learned with the goal
of communicating easily with others, not with achieving a textbook-
perfect accent. Adult students of language should be guided by the
“intelligibility principle,” not the old “nativeness principle.” As
Derwing and Munro note, “even heavily accented speech can be highly
comprehensible.”

Learners guided by the intelligibility principle focus less attention
on individual vowels and consonants, and more attention to the
“macro” aspects of language, such as general speaking habits, volume,
stress, and rhythm. A study by Derwing and colleagues showed that this
approach can work. The investigators divided subjects into three
groups: the first received foreign language instruction with no
particular focus on pronunciation; the second received instruction with
a focus on pronouncing the individual segments of language; and the
third received “global” pronunciation instruction on the general way
the foreign tongue should sound. After 12 weeks of classes, the
students were asked to tell a story in their new language, and their
efforts were rated by native-speaking listeners. Only the global group,
the listeners reported, showed significant improvement in
comprehensibility and fluency.


■ もっとふむなるしたい人は、記事の続きも読んでみよう!
 ↓ ↓ ↓
http://ti.me/HqBPPJ


■ 編集後記 ■


暴投あり死球あり押し出しありで、5回3分の2を5失点。明らかに日本のマウンド
とはテンポが違いました。松坂はどんなデビューだったっけと調べてみると、7
回10三振1四球。ハートの出来は松坂のほうが上かもしれません。

あの投球では恥ずかしくてできないだろうけど、イチローがちょっと面白いこと
を言っていました。「マウンドを降りるとき、ファンの歓声に応えて帽子を取る
ようなことをしなかったのがよかった」

とまれ、味方の援護に恵まれて初登板初勝利。大丈夫だろうとは思いますが、日
本人選手の最後の砦、ダルビッシュの1年が楽しみです。


posted by K.Andoh | Comment(2) | 生活 | このブログの読者になる |
この記事へのコメント
とても魅力的な記事でした!!
また遊びに来ます!!
ありがとうございます。。
Posted by 敬語のマナー at 2012年05月11日 17:17
敬語のマナーさま
コメントありがとうございます。
勉強になりそうなサイトですね!
Posted by K.Andoh at 2012年05月12日 17:58
コメントを書く
お名前:

メールアドレス:

ホームページアドレス:

コメント:

認証コード: [必須入力]


※画像の中の文字を半角で入力してください。
×

この広告は1年以上新しい記事の投稿がないブログに表示されております。