2012年05月22日

宗教心が失われている?分析的思考で弱まる宗教的信念


Losing Your Religion? Analytic Thinking Weakens Religious Belief
( TIME )

Most of the world’s population believes in God, or gods, but alongside
them there are also hundreds of millions of nonbelievers. What makes
one a believer or not?

Religious faith is likely a complex phenomenon, shaped by multiple
aspects of psychology and culture, say the authors of a new study. But
the researchers, Ara Norenzayan and Will Gervais of the University of
British Columbia in Canada, showed in a series of clever studies that
at least one factor consistently appears to decrease the strength of
people’s religious belief: analytic thinking.

“Religion is such a big force in the world,” says Norenzayan, an
associate professor of psychology. “Hardly a day goes by without
allegiances made to God, but we know very little about it. We are
trying to fill this gap in our knowledge.”

In one study, the researchers correlated participants’ performance on
a test of analytic thinking with measures of their religious belief.
The thinking task included three problems requiring participants to
analytically override their initial intuition. For example, one
question asked: “A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs
$1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?” The immediate,
intuitive response is 10 cents. Those who take the time to figure out
the right answer (5 cents) are judged to be more analytical, and these
people tended to score lower on the measures of religious belief.

There are surely many factors at play here, but the researchers say
their results suggest that one’s style of thought may be a crucial
contributor to religious belief. Intuitive thinkers are more likely to
be religious; analytical types, less so. “One explanation for belief
is that it is based on a number of intuitions we have about the world
around us. People don’t necessarily come to belief because they reason
into it. Intuition helps us,” says Norenzayan.


■ Uh-huh... なるへそ特記事項 ■


■ 3段落目

allegiance:忠誠、臣従の義務


■ 4段落目

correlate:相互に関連がある、相互関係を示す

override:(命令・権利などを)無視する、(決定などを)覆す、無効にする

intuition:直観、直感

形容詞が「intuitive」ですね。


■ 5段落目

at play:遊んで

Whether I am at work or at play, I try to be pleasant to people.
(私は働いていても遊んでいても、人々にいい感じでいようと務めている。)

な訳ですが、ここでは「遊んで」とは訳しにくいですね。「人生」を「game」に
たとえたりすることが多い英語の世界ですから、ここも「働いて」の方がよろし
いかと。

crucial:決定的な、きわめて重大な

contributor:寄付者、貢献者

reason:理由、理性、論理的に考える

ここは自動詞ですね。「into」が効いています。

さて、このメルマガの読者には社会人も少なくないようですが、中には英語のス
キルを生かして海外起業を!と野望に燃えている方もいるかもしれません。そん
な方におすすめのメルマガがあります。続きは編集後記の前のコーナーで。


■ さらば日本語ふむふむ読み ■


Losing Your Religion? Analytic Thinking Weakens Religious Belief
( TIME )


Most of the world’s population believes in God, or gods,

but alongside them

there are also hundreds of millions of nonbelievers.

What makes one a believer or not?


Religious faith is likely a complex phenomenon,

shaped by multiple aspects of psychology and culture,

say the authors of a new study.

But the researchers,

Ara Norenzayan and Will Gervais

of the University of British Columbia in Canada,

showed in a series of clever studies

that at least one factor consistently appears to decrease the strength

of people’s religious belief:

analytic thinking.


“Religion is such a big force in the world,”

says Norenzayan, an associate professor of psychology.

“Hardly a day goes by without allegiances made to God,

but we know very little about it.

We are trying to fill this gap in our knowledge.”


In one study,

the researchers correlated participants’ performance

on a test of analytic thinking

with measures of their religious belief.

The thinking task included three problems

requiring participants to analytically override their initial intuition.

For example,

one question asked:

“A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total.

The bat costs $1 more than the ball.

How much does the ball cost?”

The immediate, intuitive response is 10 cents.

Those who take the time to figure out the right answer (5 cents)

are judged to be more analytical,

and these people tended to score lower

on the measures of religious belief.


There are surely many factors at play here,

but the researchers say

their results suggest

that one’s style of thought may be a crucial contributor

to religious belief.

Intuitive thinkers are more likely to be religious;

analytical types, less so.

“One explanation for belief is

that it is based on a number of intuitions

we have about the world around us.

People don’t necessarily come to belief

because they reason into it.

Intuition helps us,”

says Norenzayan.


■ お帰り日本語ふむなる試訳 ■


宗教心が失われている?分析的思考で弱まる宗教的信念
(TIME)

世界の人々の大半は神、または神々を信じているが、彼らの横にはまた何億もの
無信仰者がいる。何が人を信仰者にしたり、またそうでない者にしたりするのか。

宗教的信仰はおそらく複雑な現象であり、心理や文化といった複合的な相から成
ると、新しい研究論文の執筆者は言う。だが、その研究者たち、カナダのブリテ
ィッシュ・コロンビア大学のAra NorenzayanとWill Gervaisが一連の賢明な調査
で示すところでは、少なくとも1つの要因が決まって人々の宗教的信念の強さを
殺いでいる。分析的思考だ。

「宗教は世界的にとても大きな力だ」と、心理学の准教授Norenzayanは言う。
「およそ1日たりとも神への忠誠を尽くさずに過ぎることはないのだが、私たち
はそのことについてほとんど何も知らない。私たちは自分たちの知見でこの落差
を埋めようとしている」

1つの調査において研究者たちは、被験者の分析的思考試験の成績と宗教的信念
の度合いに関連性があることを示した。その思考課題には3つの問題があり、被
験者には最初の直感を分析的に乗り越えることが求められる。例えば、こんな問
題が出る。「バットとボールの値段は合計で1.10ドルだ。バットの値段はボール
より1ドル高い。ボールの値段はいくらか?」。直感的にすぐに答えれば10セン
トだ。時間をかけて正解(5セント)を割り出した人々は分析的だと判断される。
そして、こうした人々は宗教的信念の度合いの点数が低い傾向にあった。

確かにここにはたくさんの要因が働いているが、研究者たちが言うには、この結
果は人の思考の型が宗教的信念に決定的な役割を果たすらしいことを示唆する。
直感的に思考する人は宗教的になりやすく、分析的な人はそうではない。信念と
いうものを説明するとすれば、それは周囲の世界について私たちが抱く数々の直
感に基づいている。人々が信念へと至るのは理性に導かれたからというわけでは
ない。直感に私たちは助けられている」とNorenzayanは言う。


■ もう一度ふむなるTIMEしよう! ■


Losing Your Religion? Analytic Thinking Weakens Religious Belief
( TIME )

Most of the world’s population believes in God, or gods, but alongside
them there are also hundreds of millions of nonbelievers. What makes
one a believer or not?

Religious faith is likely a complex phenomenon, shaped by multiple
aspects of psychology and culture, say the authors of a new study. But
the researchers, Ara Norenzayan and Will Gervais of the University of
British Columbia in Canada, showed in a series of clever studies that
at least one factor consistently appears to decrease the strength of
people’s religious belief: analytic thinking.

“Religion is such a big force in the world,” says Norenzayan, an
associate professor of psychology. “Hardly a day goes by without
allegiances made to God, but we know very little about it. We are
trying to fill this gap in our knowledge.”

In one study, the researchers correlated participants’ performance on
a test of analytic thinking with measures of their religious belief.
The thinking task included three problems requiring participants to
analytically override their initial intuition. For example, one
question asked: “A bat and a ball cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs
$1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?” The immediate,
intuitive response is 10 cents. Those who take the time to figure out
the right answer (5 cents) are judged to be more analytical, and these
people tended to score lower on the measures of religious belief.

There are surely many factors at play here, but the researchers say
their results suggest that one’s style of thought may be a crucial
contributor to religious belief. Intuitive thinkers are more likely to
be religious; analytical types, less so. “One explanation for belief
is that it is based on a number of intuitions we have about the world
around us. People don’t necessarily come to belief because they reason
into it. Intuition helps us,” says Norenzayan.


■ もっとふむなるしたい人は、記事の続きも読んでみよう!
 ↓ ↓ ↓
http://ti.me/KFdQ5a


■ おすすめのメルマガ ■


◆英語を活かす一石二鳥の海外起業・ビジネスメルマガ!

→ http://archive.mag2.com/0001295311/index.html

英語を使って、外国人とビジネスをしませんか?
外国人とビジネスしながら、英語を上達させませんか?


6月30日(土)海外起業・ビジネス勉強会開催。
「日本にいながら外国人相手にビジネスをする方法!」
→ http://worldsegg.com/seminar4.html


■ 編集後記 ■


前夜は「君を見ました、月見る花に、泣けてきました、嗚呼〜♪」などと歌いな
がら、調子に乗って飲み過ぎたようです。すっかり寝坊して世紀の天体ショーの
クライマックスを見損ないました。

せっかくポテトチップの缶を使ってピンホールカメラを作っておいたのに^^;
果たして私に足りないのは、敬虔な宗教心なのか科学的な興味なのか。


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