2012年10月12日

2人の幹細胞科学者がノーベル生理学・医学賞に輝く


Stem Cell Scientists Awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
( TIME )

In a testament to the revolutionary potential of the field of
regenerative medicine, in which scientists are able to create and
replace any cells that are at fault in disease, the Nobel Prize
committee on Monday awarded the 2012 Nobel in Physiology or Medicine
to two researchers whose discoveries have made such cellular alchemy
possible.

The prize went to John B. Gurdon of the University of Cambridge in
England, who was among the first to clone an animal, a frog, in
1962, and to Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan who in 2006
discovered the four genes necessary to reprogram an adult cell back
to an embryonic state.

Just as Gurdon was facing his critics in England, a young boy was
born in Osaka, Japan, who would eventually take Gurdon’s finding to
unthinkable extremes. Initially, Shinya Yamanaka would follow his
father’s wishes and become an orthopedic surgeon, but he found
himself ill-suited to the surgeon’s life. Intrigued more by the
behind-the-scenes biological processes that make the body work, he
found himself drawn to basic research, and began his career by trying
to find a way to lower cholesterol production. That work also wasn’t
successful, but it drew him to the challenge of understanding what
makes cells divide, proliferate and develop in specific ways.

In 2006, while at Kyoto University, Yamanaka stunned scientists by
announcing he had successfully achieved what Gurdon had with the frog
cells, but without using eggs at all. Yamanaka mixed four genes in
with skin cells from adult mice and turned those cells back to an
embryo-like state, essentially erasing their development and turning
back their clock. The four genes reactivated other genes that are
prolific in the early embryo, and turned off those that directed the
cells to behave like skin.


■ Uh-huh... なるへそ特記事項 ■


■ 1段落目

まずは、今回のお話の鍵となる2つの言葉の確認を。

ES cell:胚性幹細胞

正式には「embryonic stem cell」。記事中にも出てくる「embryo」が「胚、
胚芽」です・・・と書いたところでよく分からないので、ウィキペディアを紐
解きますと、

動物の発生初期段階である胚盤胞期の胚の一部に属する内部細胞塊より作られ
る幹細胞細胞株のこと。

ES細胞を樹立するには、受精卵ないし受精卵より発生が進んだ胚盤胞までの段
階の初期胚が必要となる。ヒトの場合には、受精卵を材料として用いることで、
生命の萌芽を滅失してしまうために倫理的な論議を呼んでいる。

http://bit.ly/TvuSqK

・・・なので、山中教授の「iPS細胞」がなおさら画期的なわけですね。「人
工多能性幹細胞」と訳されているこちらは、「induced pluripotent stem
cell」。「induce」は「人工的に引き起こす、誘発する」。

ちなみに「「iPS細胞」の「i」が小文字になっているのは、人気を集めた
「iPod」にあやかったとか。こういう遊び心もいいですね。

testament:遺言、遺書、聖書、証左、あかし、信条

alchemy:錬金術

卑金属を黄金に変えようとした中世ヨーロッパの魔術的な研究のことですが、
こちらもウィキペディアを引きますと、

広義では、金属に限らず様々な物質や、人間の肉体や魂をも対象として、それ
らをより完全な存在に錬成する試みを指す。

http://bit.ly/UHcflb

こんな言葉を持ち出した理由がよく分かりました。


■ 3段落目

成熟した細胞を受精卵のような状態に戻すなんて馬鹿げている。ガードン教授
の実験は学会からそんな批判を受けたという話に続くパラグラフです。

orthopedic: 整形外科(orthopedics)の

intrigue:陰謀(を企てる)、興味をそそる

proliferate:激増する、増殖する


■ さらば日本語ふむふむ読み ■


Stem Cell Scientists Awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
( TIME )


In a testament

to the revolutionary potential of the field of regenerative medicine,

in which scientists are able to create and replace any cells

that are at fault in disease,

the Nobel Prize committee on Monday

awarded the 2012 Nobel in Physiology or Medicine

to two researchers

whose discoveries have made such cellular alchemy possible.


The prize went to John B. Gurdon

of the University of Cambridge in England,

who was among the first to clone an animal,

a frog, in 1962,

and to Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan

who in 2006 discovered the four genes

necessary to reprogram an adult cell back to an embryonic state.


Just as Gurdon was facing his critics in England,

a young boy was born in Osaka, Japan,

who would eventually take Gurdon’s finding to unthinkable extremes.

Initially,

Shinya Yamanaka would follow his father’s wishes

and become an orthopedic surgeon,

but he found himself ill-suited to the surgeon’s life.

Intrigued more by the behind-the-scenes biological processes

that make the body work,

he found himself drawn to basic research,

and began his career

by trying to find a way to lower cholesterol production.

That work also wasn’t successful,

but it drew him to the challenge of understanding

what makes cells divide, proliferate and develop in specific ways.


In 2006,

while at Kyoto University,

Yamanaka stunned scientists

by announcing

he had successfully achieved

what Gurdon had with the frog cells,

but without using eggs at all.

Yamanaka mixed four genes in with skin cells from adult mice

and turned those cells back to an embryo-like state,

essentially erasing their development

and turning back their clock.

The four genes reactivated other genes

that are prolific in the early embryo,

and turned off those

that directed the cells to behave like skin.


■ お帰り日本語ふむなる試訳 ■


2人の幹細胞科学者がノーベル生理学・医学賞に輝く
( TIME )

それは紛れもなく革命的な可能性を示している。再生医学の分野の科学者たち
は、病気で故障したどんな細胞も作り出し、取り替えることができるというの
だ。ノーベル賞委員会は月曜日、2012年ノーベル生理学・医学賞を2人の科学
者に贈った。2人の発見により、こうした細胞錬金術の道筋が開かれた。

受賞者は英国のケンブリッジ大学のジョン・B・ガードン。動物のクローンを
最初に作った人だ。1962年にカエルを使った。そして、日本の京都大学の山中
伸弥。2006年に、大人の細胞を胚性状態に再プログラム化するのに必要な4つ
の遺伝子を発見した。

ガードンが英国で批判に直面していた丁度その頃、1人の男の子が日本の大阪
で生まれ、やがてはガードンの研究成果を思いも寄らない高みへと引き上げる
ことになる。当初、山中伸弥は父親の望みに従って整形外科医になるつもりだ
ったが、明らかに外科医の仕事は向いていなかった。それ以上に興味を抱いた
のが深いところで体の働きを担う生物学的プロセスであり、基礎研究に引かれ
ていることは明らかだった。そして、コレステロールの生産を低くする方法を
明らかにするという道を歩み始める。その研究も成功しなかったが、それが彼
を次の挑戦へと引き寄せる。どうして細胞は一定の様式で分裂し増殖・発達す
るのかを理解したい。

2006年に京都大学で、山中は科学者をあっと言わせた。ガードンがカエルの細
胞で成功させた偉業を自らも達成し、しかも卵子をまったく使っていないと発
表したからだ。山中は4つの遺伝子を大人のマウスの皮膚細胞に混ぜ入れて、
その細胞を胚のような状態に戻し、事実上、発達したものを消し去り、細胞の
時計の針を戻した。4つの遺伝子は初期の胚で多産的な他の遺伝子を再活性化
し、細胞を皮膚のような振る舞いへと方向づける遺伝子のスイッチを切った。


■ もう一度ふむなるTIMEしよう! ■


Stem Cell Scientists Awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
( TIME )

In a testament to the revolutionary potential of the field of
regenerative medicine, in which scientists are able to create and
replace any cells that are at fault in disease, the Nobel Prize
committee on Monday awarded the 2012 Nobel in Physiology or Medicine
to two researchers whose discoveries have made such cellular alchemy
possible.

The prize went to John B. Gurdon of the University of Cambridge in
England, who was among the first to clone an animal, a frog, in
1962, and to Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan who in 2006
discovered the four genes necessary to reprogram an adult cell back
to an embryonic state.

Just as Gurdon was facing his critics in England, a young boy was
born in Osaka, Japan, who would eventually take Gurdon’s finding to
unthinkable extremes. Initially, Shinya Yamanaka would follow his
father’s wishes and become an orthopedic surgeon, but he found
himself ill-suited to the surgeon’s life. Intrigued more by the
behind-the-scenes biological processes that make the body work, he
found himself drawn to basic research, and began his career by trying
to find a way to lower cholesterol production. That work also wasn’t
successful, but it drew him to the challenge of understanding what
makes cells divide, proliferate and develop in specific ways.

In 2006, while at Kyoto University, Yamanaka stunned scientists by
announcing he had successfully achieved what Gurdon had with the frog
cells, but without using eggs at all. Yamanaka mixed four genes in
with skin cells from adult mice and turned those cells back to an
embryo-like state, essentially erasing their development and turning
back their clock. The four genes reactivated other genes that are
prolific in the early embryo, and turned off those that directed the
cells to behave like skin.


■ もっとふむなるしたい人は、記事の続きも読んでみよう!
 ↓ ↓ ↓
http://ti.me/RMPXud


■ 編集後記 ■


今回の記事はいかがでしたか。山中教授の山あり谷啓ありだった経歴を紹介し
た朝日新聞の記事には、「挫折こそ万能の父」なんて見出しが踊っていました。
大阪人らしく、笑いも解する人柄とのこと。もう1つ共通点があるのですが、
それはまあいいかな。


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