2012年11月23日

イスラエルのガザ強襲 攻撃はどのように外科的なのか?


The Israeli Assault on Gaza: How Surgical Are the Strikes?
( TIME )

On the day they buried Ahmed Jabari, the Hamas commander blown apart
in what Israel calls a “targeted killing,” a man named Jihad
Misharawi cradled the corpse of his 11-month-old son, killed when an
apparently errant Israeli shell pierced the roof of their Gaza home.
The father’s grief was captured in a compelling Associated Press
photograph that Misharawi might have appreciated in his professional
capacity: he works for the BBC as a photo editor, the job that
involves deciding what images to send out to the world when the story
becomes the death of civilians, as it is becoming in Gaza.

Until Sunday, the number of Palestinian bystanders killed in the
Israeli assault on the crowded, poverty-stricken stretch of sand may
have been as low as 16, barely half the number of fatalities among
militants across the first four days. That proportion, if it had
stood, would have been exceptional for any war -- some researchers
say civilians historically account for 80% of war deaths -- but
especially for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) doing battle in the
Gaza Strip. The last time the IDF went into Gaza, four years ago,
1,400 Palestinians were killed, at least half of them civilians.
Israel emerged from its victory facing a torrent of international
approbation and a U.N. inquiry alleging war crimes.

The Jewish state was not keen to repeat the experience. The rhetoric
coming out of Israel can be incendiary: Monday’s Jerusalem Post
contained an op-ed by Gilad Sharon, the youngest son of former Prime
Minister Ariel Sharon, arguing, “We need to flatten entire
neighborhoods in Gaza. Flatten all of Gaza. The Americans didn’t
stop with Hiroshima -- the Japanese weren’t surrendering fast
enough, so they hit Nagasaki too.” Earlier, Interior Minister Eli
Yishai declared that the goal of the current operation is to “send
Gaza back to the Middle Ages.” But Israel’s most senior officials
appear keen to maintain the approval of Western governments, both by
emphasizing that Gaza militants provoked the assault by firing
hundreds of missiles toward Israeli communities and by arguing their
answering offensive -- more than 1,350 air, tank and warship strikes
so far -- is both fierce and restrained. The public relations section
of the IDF is proactive on the question of minimizing civilian
deaths, posting videos from earlier operations showing the trouble
Israeli pilots take to avoid injuring bystanders while pursuing
military targets. Several show gunsight footage of pilots diverting
their bombs -- after release, in flight -- when the car they are
aiming at enters a garage, or pulls up beside a cluster of
pedestrians. The missiles explode a safe distance away.

“We are learning, and we are improving from last time,” a senior
Israeli officer told TIME late last week. “But eventually we will
make a mistake, and there’ll be an accident. There’ll be a picture
of children who have been hit, and it will be devastating for us.”

Any contrast with Cast Lead is intentional. That operation began with
a massive attack on a police graduation, cutting down dozens of
cadets standing in formation. From the start, Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu framed Defensive Pillar as a series of “surgical
strikes,” and five days later, the relatively refined approach may
be having an effect. Though Israel has called up 40,000 reserves in
preparation for a possible ground assault, attention shifted over the
weekend to the terms of a possible cease-fire, mediated by Egypt,
that would avoid a ground war neither side seems to want. Officials
say Israel’s primary demand is a total cessation of rocket fire into
its territory (900 of which have been fired since Wednesday,
resulting in three Israeli deaths). For Hamas, the primary demand is
for a promise that Israel will stop killing its senior officials and
commanders.


■ Uh-huh... なるへそ特記事項 ■


■ 1段落目

surgical strike:局部攻撃

この記事のテーマになっている言葉です。「外科的な攻撃」という字面から察
しがつくと思いますが、辞書には「特定のターゲットのみに対処することを意
図した攻撃」。その後にカッコ付きで「たいてい事前の通知はない」なんて書
いてあります。

でも本文中で、イスラエルは事前に住民に警告をしてるし、手順も踏んでやっ
たと弁明しています。それでも、市民の犠牲者がたくさん出ている
(collateral damage)というのが今回の話です。

cradle:揺りかご、揺すってあやす

errant:常軌を逸した、誤った


■ 2段落目

torrent:奔流、どしゃ降り

approbation:賛成、称賛、推奨


■ 3段落目

incendiary:放火の、焼夷性の

divert:そらす、転ずる

ちなみに、「gunsight footage」にはユーチューブへのリンクが貼られていま
す。


■ 5段落目

cadet:陸軍士官学校・海軍兵学校生徒

このパラグラフの最初にある「(Operation)Cast Lead」は、4年前のイスラ
エルによるガザ攻撃の作戦名です。詳しくはウィキペディア(日本語)でどう
ぞ。

http://bit.ly/TdA14V


■ さらば日本語ふむふむ読み ■


The Israeli Assault on Gaza: How Surgical Are the Strikes?
( TIME )


On the day

they buried Ahmed Jabari,

the Hamas commander blown apart

in what Israel calls a “targeted killing,”

a man named Jihad Misharawi

cradled the corpse of his 11-month-old son,

killed when an apparently errant Israeli shell

pierced the roof of their Gaza home.

The father’s grief was captured

in a compelling Associated Press photograph

that Misharawi might have appreciated in his professional capacity:

he works for the BBC as a photo editor,

the job

that involves deciding what images to send out to the world

when the story becomes the death of civilians,

as it is becoming in Gaza.


Until Sunday,

the number of Palestinian bystanders

killed in the Israeli assault

on the crowded, poverty-stricken stretch of sand

may have been as low as 16,

barely half the number of fatalities among militants

across the first four days.

That proportion,

if it had stood, would

have been exceptional for any war --

some researchers say

civilians historically account for 80% of war deaths --

but especially for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF)

doing battle in the Gaza Strip.

The last time the IDF went into Gaza, four years ago,

1,400 Palestinians were killed,

at least half of them civilians.

Israel emerged from its victory

facing a torrent of international approbation

and a U.N. inquiry alleging war crimes.


The Jewish state was not keen to repeat the experience.

The rhetoric coming out of Israel can be incendiary:

Monday’s Jerusalem Post contained an op-ed by Gilad Sharon,

the youngest son of former Prime Minister Ariel Sharon,

arguing,

“We need to flatten entire neighborhoods in Gaza.

Flatten all of Gaza.

The Americans didn’t stop with Hiroshima --

the Japanese weren’t surrendering fast enough,

so they hit Nagasaki too.”

Earlier,

Interior Minister Eli Yishai declared

that the goal of the current operation is

to “send Gaza back to the Middle Ages.”

But Israel’s most senior officials appear keen

to maintain the approval of Western governments,

both by emphasizing

that Gaza militants provoked the assault

by firing hundreds of missiles toward Israeli communities

and by arguing

their answering offensive --

more than 1,350 air, tank and warship strikes so far --

is both fierce and restrained.

The public relations section of the IDF is proactive

on the question of minimizing civilian deaths,

posting videos from earlier operations

showing the trouble Israeli pilots take

to avoid injuring bystanders

while pursuing military targets.

Several show gunsight footage of pilots

diverting their bombs --

after release, in flight --

when the car they are aiming at enters a garage,

or pulls up beside a cluster of pedestrians.

The missiles explode a safe distance away.


“We are learning, and we are improving from last time,”

a senior Israeli officer told TIME late last week.

“But eventually we will make a mistake,

and there’ll be an accident.

There’ll be a picture of children who have been hit,

and it will be devastating for us.”


Any contrast with Cast Lead is intentional.

That operation began with a massive attack on a police graduation,

cutting down dozens of cadets standing in formation.

From the start,

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu

framed Defensive Pillar as a series of “surgical strikes,”

and five days later,

the relatively refined approach may be having an effect.

Though Israel has called up 40,000 reserves

in preparation for a possible ground assault,

attention shifted over the weekend

to the terms of a possible cease-fire,

mediated by Egypt,

that would avoid a ground war

neither side seems to want.

Officials say

Israel’s primary demand is a total cessation

of rocket fire into its territory

(900 of which have been fired since Wednesday,

resulting in three Israeli deaths).

For Hamas,

the primary demand is for a promise

that Israel will stop killing its senior officials and commanders.


■ お帰り日本語ふむなる試訳 ■


イスラエルのガザ強襲 攻撃はどのように外科的なのか?
( TIME )

その日は、イスラエルの言う「標的殺害」で吹き飛ばされたハマス司令官アハ
マド・ジャアバリを埋葬したのだが、Jihad Misharawiという名の男性も遺体
となった11歳の息子を胸に抱くことになった。イスラエルからの流れ弾がガザ
の家の屋根を突き破って死んだとされる。父親の悲嘆は心を動かさずにはおか
ないAP通信の写真が捉えた。Misharawiはその写真を称賛してもいい職業上の
立場にあった。BBCの写真部長として働いているからだ。その仕事には、ニ
ュースが民間人の死に及んだ時にどんな映像を世界に送り伝えるかを決めるこ
とがある。今回のガザの場合がそうなった。

日曜日まで、人口密度が高く貧困に苦しむ砂の大地へのイスラエルの強襲で死
んだパレスチナの民間人の数は16人程度だったようだ。最初の4日間での民兵
の死亡者数のわずか半分だ。その割合がもしもそのままだったら、例外的な戦
争になっていただろう−−一部の研究者は、民間人は歴史的に戦死者の80パー
セントを占めるという−−が、特にガザ地区で戦闘を続けるイスラエル国防軍
(IDF)にとってもそうだ。前回、4年前にIDFがガザに入った時は、1400人の
パレスチナ人が死亡し、少なくともその半数が民間人だった。イスラエルは勝
利したものの、国際的な賛同の連呼と戦争犯罪を主張する国連の調査に直面し
た。

ユダヤ人国家はこの経験を繰り返すことに熱心ではなかった。イスラエルから
聞かれる言辞は火を発しかねない。月曜日のエルサレム・ポスト紙にはアリエ
ル・シャロン元首相の末息子ジラード・シャロンの論説が掲載され、こう主張
した。「我々はガザ一帯を丸ごと打ちのめす必要がある。ガザのすべてをだ。
米国はヒロシマで手を止めなかった。日本は降伏するのが遅かった。だからナ
ガサキにも落とされた」。先に、エリ・イシャイ内務省は宣言した。現下の作
戦の目標は「ガザを中世に引き戻すことだ」。だが、イスラエルの大半の高官
は欧米政府の是認を維持することに熱心なようだ。ガザの民兵が数百発のミサ
イルを発射することで強襲を誘発したと強調し、また自分たちの応戦−−これ
までに1350回以上、戦闘機、戦車、戦艦から攻撃している−−は激しいものだ
が抑制的だと主張している。IDFの宣伝部門は、民間人の死を最小限に抑えて
いるかの質問に積極的に応じ、先の作戦でイスラエルの操縦士が軍事標的を追
跡しながらも民間人の被害を防ぐために骨を折ったことを示すビデオ映像を投
稿している。その幾つかの射撃照準器の映像によれば、操縦士は爆弾の方向を
変えており−−発射後の、まだ空中にある時に−−、その時に狙っていた自動
車はガレージに入ったり、歩行者が集まっているそばに止まったりしていた。
ミサイルは安全な距離のところで爆発した。

「我々は学習しているし、前回から改善もしている」と、イスラエルの上級将
校は先週末、タイムに語った。「だが、いつかは過ちを犯すし、事故も起こる。
子供が撃たれた写真も出る。それは我々にとっても大きな痛手になる」

いかなるキャスト・レッド作戦との違いも意図的なものだ。あの作戦は警察の
卒業式への大襲撃から始まった。隊列を組んでいた何十人もの士官候補生が殺
された。初めから、ベンジャミン・ネタニヤフ首相はディフェンシブ・ピラー
作戦を一連の「外科的攻撃」として画策し、5日後にはこの比較的洗練された
戦法は効果を上げているように見えた。イスラエルは地上強襲の可能性に備え
て4万人の予備軍を招集したが、関心はこの週末にかけて停戦が可能な条件に
移った。エジプトの仲介によるもので、双方とも望んでいるとは思えない地上
戦を避けられるかもしれないからだ。当局筋によれば、イスラエルの第一の要
求は領内へのロケット砲撃の完全停止だ(水曜日以来、900発が発射され、そ
の結果、3人のイスラエル人が死んだ)。ハマス側の第一の要求は、イスラエ
ルによる高官や司令官の殺害中止という約束だ。


■ もう一度ふむなるTIMEしよう! ■


The Israeli Assault on Gaza: How Surgical Are the Strikes?
( TIME )

On the day they buried Ahmed Jabari, the Hamas commander blown apart
in what Israel calls a “targeted killing,” a man named Jihad
Misharawi cradled the corpse of his 11-month-old son, killed when an
apparently errant Israeli shell pierced the roof of their Gaza home.
The father’s grief was captured in a compelling Associated Press
photograph that Misharawi might have appreciated in his professional
capacity: he works for the BBC as a photo editor, the job that
involves deciding what images to send out to the world when the story
becomes the death of civilians, as it is becoming in Gaza.

Until Sunday, the number of Palestinian bystanders killed in the
Israeli assault on the crowded, poverty-stricken stretch of sand may
have been as low as 16, barely half the number of fatalities among
militants across the first four days. That proportion, if it had
stood, would have been exceptional for any war -- some researchers
say civilians historically account for 80% of war deaths -- but
especially for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) doing battle in the
Gaza Strip. The last time the IDF went into Gaza, four years ago,
1,400 Palestinians were killed, at least half of them civilians.
Israel emerged from its victory facing a torrent of international
approbation and a U.N. inquiry alleging war crimes.

The Jewish state was not keen to repeat the experience. The rhetoric
coming out of Israel can be incendiary: Monday’s Jerusalem Post
contained an op-ed by Gilad Sharon, the youngest son of former Prime
Minister Ariel Sharon, arguing, “We need to flatten entire
neighborhoods in Gaza. Flatten all of Gaza. The Americans didn’t
stop with Hiroshima -- the Japanese weren’t surrendering fast
enough, so they hit Nagasaki too.” Earlier, Interior Minister Eli
Yishai declared that the goal of the current operation is to “send
Gaza back to the Middle Ages.” But Israel’s most senior officials
appear keen to maintain the approval of Western governments, both by
emphasizing that Gaza militants provoked the assault by firing
hundreds of missiles toward Israeli communities and by arguing their
answering offensive -- more than 1,350 air, tank and warship strikes
so far -- is both fierce and restrained. The public relations section
of the IDF is proactive on the question of minimizing civilian
deaths, posting videos from earlier operations showing the trouble
Israeli pilots take to avoid injuring bystanders while pursuing
military targets. Several show gunsight footage of pilots diverting
their bombs -- after release, in flight -- when the car they are
aiming at enters a garage, or pulls up beside a cluster of
pedestrians. The missiles explode a safe distance away.

“We are learning, and we are improving from last time,” a senior
Israeli officer told TIME late last week. “But eventually we will
make a mistake, and there’ll be an accident. There’ll be a picture
of children who have been hit, and it will be devastating for us.”

Any contrast with Cast Lead is intentional. That operation began with
a massive attack on a police graduation, cutting down dozens of
cadets standing in formation. From the start, Prime Minister Benjamin
Netanyahu framed Defensive Pillar as a series of “surgical
strikes,” and five days later, the relatively refined approach may
be having an effect. Though Israel has called up 40,000 reserves in
preparation for a possible ground assault, attention shifted over the
weekend to the terms of a possible cease-fire, mediated by Egypt,
that would avoid a ground war neither side seems to want. Officials
say Israel’s primary demand is a total cessation of rocket fire into
its territory (900 of which have been fired since Wednesday,
resulting in three Israeli deaths). For Hamas, the primary demand is
for a promise that Israel will stop killing its senior officials and
commanders.


■ もっとふむなるしたい人は、記事の続きも読んでみよう!
 ↓ ↓ ↓
http://ti.me/10jF3zm


■ 編集後記 ■


今回の記事はいかがでしたか。日本の地名が出てきたのにはびっくり。ひどい
話で引き合いに出されたものです。日本は領土紛争が起こっても、隣国にミサ
イルを打ち込むような馬鹿な真似はしません。そうですよねえ、石原さん。

それはさておき、先日、とあるイベント会場に行こうしたところ、道順が分か
らなくなりました。そこへ現れたのが野田さんで、首相も迷子になったとのこ
と。二人で困っていると、今度は俳優の大杉漣さんがやって来ました。僕は場
所を知っているけど、その前に喫茶店で一服しようよと、大杉さん。でも、大
杉さんはなぜか店内でギターの弾き語りを始めるのでした。

支離滅裂が常とはいえ、おかしな夢を見るものです。大杉さんは好きですが、
石原さんや野田さんのことを内心気にしているのかしら。とまれ、来月は騒々
しくなりそうです。


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