2012年12月04日

相手の感情を読み解きたいなら、顔ではなく体を見よ


To Really Read Emotions, Look at Body Language, Not Facial Expressions
( TIME )

We like to think we can read people like a book, relying mostly on
tell-tale facial expressions that give away the emotions inside: the
way the brows lift slightly with alarm, or the crow’s feet that
crinkle with a wide smile. But when it comes to the strongest
emotions, we read much less from facial expressions than we think we
do. In fact, even though we believe it’s the face that tells the
story, we’re typically reading something very different: body
language and social cues.

That’s the new, counterintuitive finding from a study published this
week in the journal Science. Researchers from Princeton, New York
University, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem presented
volunteer study participants with a series of pictures showing people
experiencing extreme emotion, either positive or negative. The images
included professional tennis players who had just won or lost a point
in a major match, as well as people undergoing nipple piercing, and
those in the throes of orgasm.

In some of the images, researchers would only show the study
participants a face; in others, only a body; and in others still,
both the body and the face. You might think it’d be obvious from a
face whether someone is in pain (having a nipple pierced) or whether
he has just won Wimbledon. But it turns out it isn’t.

“The striking finding was that our participants had no clue if the
emotion was positive or negative, when they were judging isolated
faces,” says lead study author Hillel Aviezer from Hebrew University
in an email response discussing the findings. “By contrast, when
they were judging the body (with no face), or the body with the face,
they easily differentiated positive from negative expressions.”

He adds that we do, of course, read a great deal of salient day-to-
day emotional information from faces -- but only in certain
situations. The reliability of that transmission, for example,
appears to break down when emotions are at their strongest. The face
contorts. We can tell that something major has happened, but it’s
tough to tell that something is dramatically positive or
devastatingly negative.


■ Uh-huh... なるへそ特記事項 ■


■ 1段落目

tell-tale:秘密(内情などを)を暴露したがる(人)、密告者

「tell」はもちろん「言う、話す」ですが、「分かる、見分ける」という場合
にも使います。後者の意味の同意語の「differentiate」は4段落目に出てきま
す。訳文は「言う」系で統一しています。

brow(eyebrow):眉(毛)

発音は「ブラウ」です。

crinkle:しわ(を寄せる)

cue:手がかり、合図

■ 2段落目

undergo:(検査・手術などを)受ける、経験する

throe:激痛、痛みの激しい発作


■ 3段落目

obvious:明らかな、すぐに分かる

「You might think…」から始まるこの文をフツーに訳せば、「あなた(を含
む一般の人々)は、誰かが苦痛の中にあるかどうかは(中略)顔から明らかだ
ろうと思うかもしれない」。


■ 5段落目

salient:顕著な、目立った

contort:ねじ曲げる、歪む


■ さらば日本語ふむふむ読み ■


To Really Read Emotions, Look at Body Language, Not Facial Expressions
( TIME )


We like to think

we can read people like a book,

relying mostly on tell-tale facial expressions

that give away the emotions inside:

the way the brows lift slightly with alarm,

or the crow’s feet that crinkle with a wide smile.

But when it comes to the strongest emotions,

we read much less from facial expressions

than we think we do.

In fact,

even though we believe

it’s the face that tells the story,

we’re typically reading something very different:

body language and social cues.


That’s the new, counterintuitive finding

from a study published this week in the journal Science.

Researchers

from Princeton, New York University, and the Hebrew University of
Jerusalem

presented volunteer study participants with a series of pictures

showing people experiencing extreme emotion,

either positive or negative.

The images included professional tennis players

who had just won or lost a point in a major match,

as well as people undergoing nipple piercing,

and those in the throes of orgasm.


In some of the images,

researchers would only show the study participants a face;

in others, only a body;

and in others still, both the body and the face.

You might think

it’d be obvious from a face

whether someone is in pain (having a nipple pierced)

or whether he has just won Wimbledon.

But it turns out it isn’t.


“The striking finding was

that our participants had no clue

if the emotion was positive or negative,

when they were judging isolated faces,”

says lead study author Hillel Aviezer from Hebrew University

in an email response discussing the findings.

“By contrast,

when they were judging the body (with no face),

or the body with the face,

they easily differentiated positive from negative expressions.”


He adds

that we do, of course, read a great deal

of salient day-to-day emotional information from faces --

but only in certain situations.

The reliability of that transmission,

for example,

appears to break down

when emotions are at their strongest.

The face contorts.

We can tell that something major has happened,

but it’s tough to tell

that something is dramatically positive or devastatingly negative.


■ お帰り日本語ふむなる試訳 ■


相手の感情を読み解きたいなら、顔ではなく体を見よ
( TIME )

私たちは本のように人を読めると思いがちだ。お喋りな顔の表情に当たれば、
たいてい内なる感情も丸見えになる。わずかに眉が上がったのは警戒の、ある
いはカラスの足跡が付いたのは満面の笑みのせいといった調子だ。だが、この
上なく激しい感情ということになると、顔の表情から読み取れるものは思いの
ほか少ない。それどころか、顔こそがものを言うという自らの信念にもかかわ
らず、私たちは通常まったく違うものを読んでいる。身振り言語と社交的な見
当だ。

この直感に反する新しい発見は、今週サイエンス誌に発表された研究による。
プリンストン大学とニュー・ヨーク大学とエルサレムのヘブライ大学の研究者
たちは、ボランティアの被験者に正か負の極端な感情を味わう人々が写った一
連の写真を示した。その写真は大きな試合でポイントを上げた、または失った
ばかりのプロテニス選手、乳首ピアスをする人やオルガズムで苦悶する人とい
ったものだ。

幾つかの写真では、研究者は被験者に顔だけを見せた。別のものでは体だけを、
さらに別のものでは体と顔の両方を見せた。誰もが思うはずだ。その人が苦し
んでいる(乳首ピアスをしてもらっている)かどうかや、その人がウインブル
ドンで勝った直後かどうかなんて、顔に書いてある。だがふたを開けてみれば、
そうではなかった。

「この発見で驚いたのは、被験者はその感情が正のものか負のものか、顔だけ
を取り出して判断する場合には見当がつかなかったことだ」と言うのは、主筆
研究者であるヘブライ大学のHillel Aviezerだ。電子メールの返信で発見につ
いて話してくれた。「それに反して、体(顔なし)で、または顔のある体で判
断する場合には、正と負の感情を簡単に識別した」

彼はもちろんと付け加える。実に、私たちは毎日これはという感情的な情報を
顔から大量に読み取っている。だが、それは一定の状況に限られる。例えば、
こうした伝達の心当てがあたかも打ち砕かれてしまうのが、感情がこの上なく
強い場合だ。顔は歪む。私たちは何か大きなことが起こっていると言うことは
できても、その何かが劇的なまでに正のものなのか、破壊的なまでに負のもの
なのかを言い当てることは難しい。


■ もう一度ふむなるTIMEしよう! ■


To Really Read Emotions, Look at Body Language, Not Facial Expressions
( TIME )

We like to think we can read people like a book, relying mostly on
tell-tale facial expressions that give away the emotions inside: the
way the brows lift slightly with alarm, or the crow’s feet that
crinkle with a wide smile. But when it comes to the strongest
emotions, we read much less from facial expressions than we think we
do. In fact, even though we believe it’s the face that tells the
story, we’re typically reading something very different: body
language and social cues.

That’s the new, counterintuitive finding from a study published this
week in the journal Science. Researchers from Princeton, New York
University, and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem presented
volunteer study participants with a series of pictures showing people
experiencing extreme emotion, either positive or negative. The images
included professional tennis players who had just won or lost a point
in a major match, as well as people undergoing nipple piercing, and
those in the throes of orgasm.

In some of the images, researchers would only show the study
participants a face; in others, only a body; and in others still,
both the body and the face. You might think it’d be obvious from a
face whether someone is in pain (having a nipple pierced) or whether
he has just won Wimbledon. But it turns out it isn’t.

“The striking finding was that our participants had no clue if the
emotion was positive or negative, when they were judging isolated
faces,” says lead study author Hillel Aviezer from Hebrew University
in an email response discussing the findings. “By contrast, when
they were judging the body (with no face), or the body with the face,
they easily differentiated positive from negative expressions.”

He adds that we do, of course, read a great deal of salient day-to-
day emotional information from faces -- but only in certain
situations. The reliability of that transmission, for example,
appears to break down when emotions are at their strongest. The face
contorts. We can tell that something major has happened, but it’s
tough to tell that something is dramatically positive or
devastatingly negative.


■ もっとふむなるしたい人は、記事の続きも読んでみよう!
 ↓ ↓ ↓
http://ti.me/YoQfNN


■ 編集後記 ■


いよいよ今日から選挙です。「一部始終を見ていた群衆」のカギ括弧を取って、
私たちは「正しいことを言っている感じ感をもっとも演出できた人を選ばなく
てはいけません」。

http://bit.ly/UcioPA

題して、「正しい感じ感感感」。町田康一流のヘンテコ文体が笑わせます。で
も、空疎な言葉ばかりがさきわう日本の政治状況を言い当てているかもしれま
せん。朝日新聞デジタルに登録しないと読めないかな。ぜひ。


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