2012年12月11日

真珠湾2.0


Pearl Harbor 2.0
( TIME )

The “infamy” of December 7, 1941, is deeper than most Americans
have ever imagined. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was almost
certainly the result of a Soviet plot --“Operation Snow”-- carried
out by Harry Dexter White, a figure of enormous influence in the
Roosevelt administration and a known Soviet spy.

Americans remember Pearl Harbor as the work of a Japanese military
machine hell-bent on a war of conquest. The truth is more complicated.

The Russians, meanwhile, knew that they could not simultaneously
repel an expected German invasion from the west and respond to the
Japanese threat from the east. A series of skirmishes with the
Japanese at Nomonhan in 1939 had revealed serious weaknesses in the
Soviet military.

The NKVD, predecessor of the KGB, knew that a war with the United
States would divert Japan from its ambitions in Mongolia and Siberia
--t hreats that tied up 25% of the Red Army -- and allow Russia to
deploy its full military power against the Germans. Fortunately for
Stalin, his intelligence service had an “agent of influence” in
Washington perfectly situated to provoke a U.S.-Japanese war -- Harry
Dexter White, a high-ranking Treasury official.

Fearing exposure, White temporarily gave up his subversive
activities. But in May 1941, as the non-aggression pact between
Hitler and Stalin began to unravel, NKVD agent Vitalii Pavlov managed
to reactivate White with an urgent mission -- to provoke a war
between the United States and Japan so that Russia would not have to
fight on two fronts.

From his perch in the Treasury Department, White had become closely
acquainted with the key figures in FDR’s administration. He knew,
for instance, that Stanley Hornbeck, the State Department’s expert
on Asia, hated the Japanese and believed that Asians were naturally
timid and easily bluffed. And White wielded enormous influence with
his boss, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthal Jr., whose
personal friendship with the president made him the most powerful
member of the cabinet.

Skillfully manipulating Morgenthau and Hornbeck, White was able to
turn U.S. policy toward Japan in an increasingly belligerent
direction. When FDR almost agreed to relax a U.S. oil embargo in
return for Japan’s gradual evacuation of China, White drafted a
hysterical letter for Morgenthau’s signature:

To sell China to her enemies for the thirty blood-stained coins of
gold, will not only weaken our national policy in Europe as well as
the Far East, but will dim the bright luster of America’s world
leadership in the great democratic fight against Fascism.

Instead of compromising, the United States demanded that Japan
withdraw from China immediately, neutralize Manchuria, and sell
three-quarters of its military and naval production to the U.S.

Perceiving the demand as an insult and a threat, the skittish
Japanese government concluded that war was inevitable. They moved
ahead with a contingency plan for an attack on the Pacific Fleet at
Pearl Harbor and the Philippines, and Stalin, thanks to Harry Dexter
White, were spared a war on his eastern flank.


■ Uh-huh... なるへそ特記事項 ■


■ 1段落目(The “infamy” of December 7 …)

Pearl Harbor 2.0:真珠湾にーてんぜろ

ひと頃「web 2.0」といった言葉をよく目にしました。はてなキーワードから
引いておきます。

web2.0、Docomo2.0に代表されるように、レガシーシステムに対して、新しい
ムーブメントの動き、または、その状態。ただし、「視力2.0」だけは意味合
いが異なる。

http://d.hatena.ne.jp/keyword/2.0

見出しの「Pearl Harbor 2.0」の出どころです。「視力2.0」には座布団1枚。


■ 2段落目(Americans remember …)

hell-bent:(〜を)決意して、必死になって

「bent」はそもそも、「曲げる、傾ける」の「bend」の過去形・分詞ですね。


■ 3段落目(The Russians, …)

skirmish:小競り合い、小衝突


■ 5段落目(Fearing exposure, …)

軍の強硬派による凶行で騒然としていた日本の状況を描いたパラグラフに続く
段落です。頑張ってまとめましたが、今回はかなり飛びとびかもしれません。

subversive:破壊する、倒壊させる

動詞の「subvert」が政権などを「倒す、転覆する」。

unravel:(もつれた糸・編み物など)解く、ほぐす

「ravel」が糸や髪を「もつれさせる」。それなのに、「unravel」と同じ「解
く、ほぐす」の意味でも使われる、どっちやねんの単語です。


■ 6段落目(From his perch …)

perch:(鳥の)止まり木、有利な(安全な)場所

bluff:脅す、はったりでだます

wield:(剣などを)ふるう、振り回す


■ 7段落目(Skillfully manipulating …)

belligerent: 交戦中の、けんか好きの

embargo:(船舶の)出・入港禁止、通商停止


■ 8段落目(To sell China …)

thirty blood-stained coins of gold:30の血で汚れた金のコイン

「thirty pieces of silver」と言えば聖書に出てくる言葉で、ユダがキリス
トを裏切って得た「銀貨30枚」の代価。恐らく、これを下敷きにしているので
しょう。


■ 10段落目(Perceiving the demand …)

skittish:(馬などが)ものに驚きやすい、ものおじする

contingency:偶発性、不測の事態

flank:横腹、わき腹、(建物・山など)側面


■ さらば日本語ふむふむ読み ■


Pearl Harbor 2.0
( TIME )


The “infamy” of December 7, 1941, is deeper

than most Americans have ever imagined.

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was almost certainly the result

of a Soviet plot --“Operation Snow”--

carried out by Harry Dexter White,

a figure of enormous influence in the Roosevelt administration

and a known Soviet spy.


Americans remember Pearl Harbor

as the work of a Japanese military machine

hell-bent on a war of conquest.

The truth is more complicated.


The Russians,

meanwhile,

knew

that they could not simultaneously repel an expected German invasion

from the west

and respond to the Japanese threat from the east.

A series of skirmishes with the Japanese

at Nomonhan in 1939

had revealed serious weaknesses in the Soviet military.


The NKVD,

predecessor of the KGB,

knew

that a war with the United States

would divert Japan from its ambitions in Mongolia and Siberia --

threats that tied up 25% of the Red Army --

and allow Russia to deploy its full military power against the Germans.


Fortunately for Stalin,

his intelligence service had an “agent of influence”

in Washington

perfectly situated to provoke a U.S.-Japanese war --

Harry Dexter White, a high-ranking Treasury official.


Fearing exposure,

White temporarily gave up his subversive activities.

But in May 1941,

as the non-aggression pact between Hitler and Stalin began to unravel,

NKVD agent Vitalii Pavlov managed to reactivate White

with an urgent mission --

to provoke a war between the United States and Japan

so that Russia would not have to fight on two fronts.


From his perch in the Treasury Department,

White had become closely acquainted

with the key figures in FDR’s administration.

He knew,

for instance,

that Stanley Hornbeck,

the State Department’s expert on Asia,

hated the Japanese

and believed

that Asians were naturally timid and easily bluffed.

And White wielded enormous influence with his boss,

Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthal Jr.,

whose personal friendship with the president

made him the most powerful member of the cabinet.


Skillfully manipulating Morgenthau and Hornbeck,

White was able to turn U.S. policy toward Japan

in an increasingly belligerent direction.

When FDR almost agreed to relax a U.S. oil embargo

in return for Japan’s gradual evacuation of China,

White drafted a hysterical letter for Morgenthau’s signature:


To sell China to her enemies

for the thirty blood-stained coins of gold,

will not only weaken our national policy in Europe

as well as the Far East,

but will dim the bright luster of America’s world leadership

in the great democratic fight against Fascism.


Instead of compromising,

the United States demanded

that Japan withdraw from China immediately,

neutralize Manchuria,

and sell three-quarters of its military and naval production to the
U.S.


Perceiving the demand as an insult and a threat,

the skittish Japanese government concluded

that war was inevitable.

They moved ahead with a contingency plan

for an attack on the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor and the Philippines,

and Stalin,

thanks to Harry Dexter White,

were spared a war on his eastern flank.


■ お帰り日本語ふむなる試訳 ■


真珠湾2.0
( TIME )

1941年12月7日の「不名誉」は、大方の米国人がこれまで想像してきた以上に
奥が深い。日本の真珠湾攻撃はほぼ間違いなくソ連の策略「雪作戦」の結果だ
った。遂行したのはハリー・デクスター・ホワイト。ルーズベルト政権で絶大
な影響力を持った人物にして、ソ連のスパイだった。

米国人は真珠湾を、征服戦争に猪突猛進した日本の軍事機構の仕業として覚え
ている。真相はもっと複雑だ。

一方、ソ連は分かっていた。西からの侵攻が予想されるドイツを撃退すると同
時に、東からの日本の脅威に対抗することはできない。1939年のノモンハンで
の日本との一連の衝突で、ソ連軍の深刻な弱点が露呈していた。

KGBの前身であるNKVDは分かっていた。米国との戦争になれば、日本の野心の
矛先はモンゴルやシベリア−−その脅威に赤軍の25%が釘付けになっていた−
−から逸れ、ソ連は全軍事力をドイツに対して投じることができる。幸いにも
スターリンの諜報機関は、米日戦争を誘発するのにうってつけな「影響力のあ
る工作員」をワシントンに潜ませていた。ハリー・デクスター・ホワイト、財
務省高官だった。

身分の露見を恐れたホワイトは一時期、破壊活動を断念した。だが1941年5月、
ヒトラーとスターリンの不可侵条約に綻びが見え始めると、NKVDの工作員ビタ
リー・パブロフは緊急指令を出してホワイトの活動再開を促した−−米国と日
本の戦争を誘発せよ。そうすれば、ソ連は両面戦争を避けることができる。

財務省の要職にあったホワイトは、ルーズベルト(F・D・ルーズベルト)政権
の重要人物とよしみを通じていた。例えば、スタンリー・ホーンベックと知り
合った。この国務省のアジア専門家は日本人を嫌悪し、アジア人は生来臆病で
脅せばどうにでもなると信じていた。そして、ホワイトは直属の上司である財
務長官ヘンリー・モーゲンソー・ジュニアに絶大な影響力を振るう。財務長官
は大統領と個人的な友情関係にあったことから、閣僚内で最も力を持っていた。

モーゲンソーとホーンベックを巧みに操ることで、ホワイトは徐々に米国の対
日政策を強硬路線へと傾けていった。折しも、ルーズベルトは日本の中国から
の段階的撤退と引き換えに米国の対日禁輸を緩和することにほぼ同意していた
のだが、ホワイトはモーゲンソーの署名を求めて感情をむき出しにした書簡を
起こす。

中国を血塗られた金貨30枚のために敵に売り渡すことはヨーロッパのみならず、
極東における我が国の政策を損なうことになるばかりか、ファシズムを戦う偉
大な民主主義における米国の世界的指導性という栄光の輝きを失わせることに
なるだろう。

妥協する代わりに、米国は日本の中国からの即時撤退と満州の中立化、そして
陸海軍の生産量4分の3の米国への売却を要求した。

この要求を侮辱的な脅しと受け止めた日本政府は、腰の定まらぬまま戦争は不
可避だと結論した。日本は真珠湾とフィリピンの太平洋艦隊を攻撃する緊急対
策を進め、そしてスターリンは、ハリー・デクスター・ホワイトの功績で、東
部方面での戦争を免れた。


■ もう一度ふむなるTIMEしよう! ■


Pearl Harbor 2.0
( TIME )

The “infamy” of December 7, 1941, is deeper than most Americans
have ever imagined. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was almost
certainly the result of a Soviet plot --“Operation Snow”-- carried
out by Harry Dexter White, a figure of enormous influence in the
Roosevelt administration and a known Soviet spy.

Americans remember Pearl Harbor as the work of a Japanese military
machine hell-bent on a war of conquest. The truth is more complicated.

The Russians, meanwhile, knew that they could not simultaneously
repel an expected German invasion from the west and respond to the
Japanese threat from the east. A series of skirmishes with the
Japanese at Nomonhan in 1939 had revealed serious weaknesses in the
Soviet military.

The NKVD, predecessor of the KGB, knew that a war with the United
States would divert Japan from its ambitions in Mongolia and Siberia
--t hreats that tied up 25% of the Red Army -- and allow Russia to
deploy its full military power against the Germans. Fortunately for
Stalin, his intelligence service had an “agent of influence” in
Washington perfectly situated to provoke a U.S.-Japanese war -- Harry
Dexter White, a high-ranking Treasury official.

Fearing exposure, White temporarily gave up his subversive
activities. But in May 1941, as the non-aggression pact between
Hitler and Stalin began to unravel, NKVD agent Vitalii Pavlov managed
to reactivate White with an urgent mission -- to provoke a war
between the United States and Japan so that Russia would not have to
fight on two fronts.

From his perch in the Treasury Department, White had become closely
acquainted with the key figures in FDR’s administration. He knew,
for instance, that Stanley Hornbeck, the State Department’s expert
on Asia, hated the Japanese and believed that Asians were naturally
timid and easily bluffed. And White wielded enormous influence with
his boss, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthal Jr., whose
personal friendship with the president made him the most powerful
member of the cabinet.

Skillfully manipulating Morgenthau and Hornbeck, White was able to
turn U.S. policy toward Japan in an increasingly belligerent
direction. When FDR almost agreed to relax a U.S. oil embargo in
return for Japan’s gradual evacuation of China, White drafted a
hysterical letter for Morgenthau’s signature:

To sell China to her enemies for the thirty blood-stained coins of
gold, will not only weaken our national policy in Europe as well as
the Far East, but will dim the bright luster of America’s world
leadership in the great democratic fight against Fascism.

Instead of compromising, the United States demanded that Japan
withdraw from China immediately, neutralize Manchuria, and sell
three-quarters of its military and naval production to the U.S.

Perceiving the demand as an insult and a threat, the skittish
Japanese government concluded that war was inevitable. They moved
ahead with a contingency plan for an attack on the Pacific Fleet at
Pearl Harbor and the Philippines, and Stalin, thanks to Harry Dexter
White, were spared a war on his eastern flank.


■ もっとふむなるしたい人は、記事の続きも読んでみよう!
 ↓ ↓ ↓
http://ti.me/SQVp0g


■ 編集後記 ■


今回の記事はいかがでしたか。最近、「Operation Snow: How a Soviet Mole
in FDR's White House Triggered Pearl Harbor」という本を出した著者の文
章です。

http://amzn.to/YVSqZn

日本が卑怯者扱いされた真珠湾攻撃の黒幕は、実はソ連だった。寡聞にして全
然知らない話でした。真偽のほどはどうあれ、面白そうな本です。あら、こん
な新書も出ていたのですね。

http://amzn.to/Uvwsnl

英語の本は皆さんにお任せして、僕はまず、この「ハル・ノートを書いた男」
を読んでみようと思います。


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