2013年01月18日

インドはどのようにポリオと戦い、勝ったのか


How India Fought Polio -- and Won
( TIME )

A few days ago, Ramesh Ferris took his first ride on a motorbike.
Born in India and raised in Canada, Ferris made the journey into
rural India to meet Ruksa Khatun, the 3-year-old girl who is the last
child in India known to have contracted polio. This weekend, as the
nation quietly marked two years without a single infection by the
wild poliovirus, that child’s parents wondered how they were going
to manage the surgery her doctors say she needs on a foot crippled
by the disease.

Ferris would understand the gravity of their situation better than
most. After he was paralyzed by polio as an infant, his birth mother
was unable to provide him with the care he needed and placed him in
an international orphanage. He was adopted by a family in Canada’s
Yukon territory, where he grew up, eventually becoming an advocate in
the global drive to end polio. India was once considered the center
of the crippling disease -- and was expected to be the last place it
would be eradicated. But last year, the World Health Organization
(WHO) confirmed that polio was no longer endemic in India. Next year,
if no new cases arise, the country will be declared polio-free,
perhaps the greatest public-health feat it has ever achieved, saving
hundreds of thousands of children from paralysis and death.

India’s accomplishment was a triumph of consistent and strong
political will as well as international coordination and has given a
huge lift to the global fight against polio, a disease that as
recently as 1988 claimed 350,000 people each year. In 2012, the
global caseload was just 222. When India came off the WHO list last
year, the number of countries where the virus is still endemic came
down to three: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. “Given India’s
complex circumstances in terms of where people live and its
topography, it’s astounding it came off the list before other
countries,” says Ferris.

It wasn’t until 1994, when the local government of the New Delhi
capital region conducted a hugely successful mass immunization
campaign targeting children, that the idea began to gain momentum
that India might actually be able to tackle this disease. Though
other Indian states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu had conducted similar
campaigns before, it wasn’t until the national government saw
tangible progress that officials were sufficiently convinced they
could make a difference. “That’s when India decided to go after
polio in a big way,” says Naveen Thacker. Routine immunization --
in which patients sought out the vaccine themselves -- had reduced
polio but couldn’t stop it from spreading. Reported immunization
coverage across India was officially as high as 90%, but the disease
was still being transmitted.


■ Uh-huh... なるへそ特記事項 ■


■ 1段落目

contract:契約(する)、縮小する、病気にかかる

cripple:手足の不自由な人、不具にする


■ 2段落目

orphanage:孤児(orphan)院、児童養護施設

adopt:採用する、養子にする

eradicate:撲滅する、根絶する

endemic:(病気など)一地方特有の、風土病

「epidemic」「pandemic」との違いは以下のページでどうぞ。

http://www.enago.jp/learn/endemic-vs-epidemic-vs-pandemic.htm

feat:手柄、偉業


■ 3段落目

claim:(権利としての)要求、主張(する)、(命を)奪う

caseload:(裁判所・病院などの)取扱い件数


■ 4段落目

immunization:免疫性を与えること、予防接種

学校英語でおなじみでしょうが、最初の文、ややこしいです。

It was not until yesterday that I noticed it.

(昨日までそれに気づくことがなかった→昨日になって初めて気がついた。)

こんなのが複雑になった形です。

tangible:触れて分かる、確実な

make a difference:(良い)違いを生む、効果がある


■ さらば日本語ふむふむ読み ■


How India Fought Polio -- and Won
( TIME )


A few days ago,

Ramesh Ferris took his first ride on a motorbike.

Born in India and raised in Canada,

Ferris made the journey into rural India to meet Ruksa Khatun,

the 3-year-old girl

who is the last child in India known to have contracted polio.

This weekend,

as the nation quietly marked two years

without a single infection by the wild poliovirus,

that child’s parents wondered

how they were going to manage the surgery

her doctors say she needs on a foot crippled by the disease.


Ferris would understand the gravity of their situation

better than most.

After he was paralyzed by polio as an infant,

his birth mother was unable to provide him with the care he needed

and placed him in an international orphanage.

He was adopted by a family in Canada’s Yukon territory,

where he grew up,

eventually becoming an advocate in the global drive to end polio.

India was once considered the center of the crippling disease --

and was expected to be the last place it would be eradicated.

But last year,

the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed

that polio was no longer endemic in India.

Next year,

if no new cases arise,

the country will be declared polio-free,

perhaps the greatest public-health feat it has ever achieved,

saving hundreds of thousands of children from paralysis and death.


India’s accomplishment was a triumph

of consistent and strong political will

as well as international coordination

and has given a huge lift to the global fight against polio,

a disease that as recently as 1988 claimed 350,000 people each year.

In 2012,

the global caseload was just 222.

When India came off the WHO list last year,

the number of countries

where the virus is still endemic

came down to three:

Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

“Given India’s complex circumstances

in terms of where people live and its topography,

it’s astounding

it came off the list before other countries,”

says Ferris.


It wasn’t until 1994,

when the local government of the New Delhi capital region

conducted a hugely successful mass immunization campaign

targeting children,

that the idea began to gain momentum

that India might actually be able to tackle this disease.

Though other Indian states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu

had conducted similar campaigns before,

it wasn’t until the national government saw tangible progress

that officials were sufficiently convinced

they could make a difference.

“That’s when India decided to go after polio in a big way,”

says Naveen Thacker.

Routine immunization --

in which patients sought out the vaccine themselves --

had reduced polio

but couldn’t stop it from spreading.

Reported immunization coverage across India

was officially as high as 90%,

but the disease was still being transmitted.


■ お帰り日本語ふむなる試訳 ■


インドはどのようにポリオと戦い、勝ったのか
( TIME )

数日前、Ramesh Ferrisは初めてオートバイに乗った。インドに生まれ、カナ
ダで育ったFerrisは、Ruksa Khatunに会うためにインドの田舎に旅をした。こ
の3歳の少女はインドでポリオにかかった最後の子供と言われる。今週、折し
も国は野生のポリオウイルスの感染が一例もなく静かに丸2年を迎えるが、少
女の両親は首を傾げていた。医者は病気で機能を損ねた足のために手術が必要
だと言うのだが、どうやって受けさせればいいのか。

Ferrisは事態の重大さを誰よりもよく理解しているだろう。彼は幼児の頃、ポ
リオで麻痺を起こしたが、生みの母は必要な治療を与えることができず、国際
的な児童養護施設に送った。彼はカナダ・ユーコン準州の家庭の養子になり、
そこで育ち、やがてポリオに終止符を打つための世界的な運動の支持者になっ
た。インドはかつてこの機能損傷性疾患の中心地と目され−−そして、それが
根絶される最後の地だと予測されていた。しかし昨年、世界保健機関(WHO)
はポリオがインドでもはや流行していないことを確認した。来年、新しい患者
が発生しなければ、同国はポリオ・ゼロを宣言しよう。恐らく、これまでに成
し遂げられたことのない最大級の公衆衛生上の偉業は、何十万人もの子供たち
を麻痺と死から救うことになる。

インドの達成は堅実にして力強い政治的意志と国際協力の勝利であり、ポリオ
との世界的な戦いを大きく推し進めた。この病気はつい最近の1988年まで毎年
35万人の命を奪っていた。2012年、世界的な処置件数はわずか222になった。
インドが昨年WHOのリストから外れると、ウイルスがまだ流行している国の数
は3にまで下がった。ナイジェリアとパキスタンとアフガニスタンだ。「人々
が住むところや地勢に関するインドの複雑な状況を踏まえれば、他の国々より
先にリストから外れたのは驚くべきことだ」と、Ferrisは言った。

1994年に首都圏ニュー・デリーの地元政府が子供を対象に実施した集団予防接
種キャンペーンで大成功を収めた後でようやく、インドは実際にこの病気に立
ち向かうことができるかもしれないとの考えに弾みがついた。ケララやタミ
ル・ナードゥなど他のインド諸州も以前に同じようなキャンペーンを実施して
いたが、中央政府が具体的な進展を目にした後で、ようやく当局は効果があり
そうだと十分な確信を得た。「そのときにインドは大々的にポリオの追跡に乗
り出した」と、Naveen Thackerは言う。定期予防接種−−患者たちは自分でワ
クチンを探し求めていた−−はポリオを減らしていたが、蔓延を防ぐことはで
きなかった。インド全土における報告予防接種率は公的に90%の高さになった
が、病気はまだ伝染していた。


■ もう一度ふむなるTIMEしよう! ■


How India Fought Polio -- and Won
( TIME )

A few days ago, Ramesh Ferris took his first ride on a motorbike.
Born in India and raised in Canada, Ferris made the journey into
rural India to meet Ruksa Khatun, the 3-year-old girl who is the last
child in India known to have contracted polio. This weekend, as the
nation quietly marked two years without a single infection by the
wild poliovirus, that child’s parents wondered how they were going
to manage the surgery her doctors say she needs on a foot crippled
by the disease.

Ferris would understand the gravity of their situation better than
most. After he was paralyzed by polio as an infant, his birth mother
was unable to provide him with the care he needed and placed him in
an international orphanage. He was adopted by a family in Canada’s
Yukon territory, where he grew up, eventually becoming an advocate in
the global drive to end polio. India was once considered the center
of the crippling disease -- and was expected to be the last place it
would be eradicated. But last year, the World Health Organization
(WHO) confirmed that polio was no longer endemic in India. Next year,
if no new cases arise, the country will be declared polio-free,
perhaps the greatest public-health feat it has ever achieved, saving
hundreds of thousands of children from paralysis and death.

India’s accomplishment was a triumph of consistent and strong
political will as well as international coordination and has given a
huge lift to the global fight against polio, a disease that as
recently as 1988 claimed 350,000 people each year. In 2012, the
global caseload was just 222. When India came off the WHO list last
year, the number of countries where the virus is still endemic came
down to three: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. “Given India’s
complex circumstances in terms of where people live and its
topography, it’s astounding it came off the list before other
countries,” says Ferris.

It wasn’t until 1994, when the local government of the New Delhi
capital region conducted a hugely successful mass immunization
campaign targeting children, that the idea began to gain momentum
that India might actually be able to tackle this disease. Though
other Indian states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu had conducted similar
campaigns before, it wasn’t until the national government saw
tangible progress that officials were sufficiently convinced they
could make a difference. “That’s when India decided to go after
polio in a big way,” says Naveen Thacker. Routine immunization --
in which patients sought out the vaccine themselves -- had reduced
polio but couldn’t stop it from spreading. Reported immunization
coverage across India was officially as high as 90%, but the disease
was still being transmitted.


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http://ti.me/TXqgcc


■ 編集後記 ■


若い頃に親しんだ名前が相次いで鬼籍に記される。改めて、かくも歳月は流れ
たのかと思い知ります。我が身にポリオの心配は少なくとも、糖尿病、心臓病、
癌・・・恐ろしい病気が手ぐすね引いて待つ年回りになりました。

毎食時の野菜と果物、一日一回の緑茶とヨーグルトを欠かさぬこと。最近、始
めた習慣です。長年、飲酒喫煙その他もろもろの不摂生を積み重ねて参りまし
た。やっぱり、焼け石に水?神様お願い!


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