ニャンコが200マイル歩いて帰宅 猫の内なる方位磁石を科学する

How a Kitty Walked 200 Miles Home: The Science of Your Cat’s Inner
( TIME )

When a battered, skinny tortoiseshell cat wandered into a yard in
Florida earlier this year, she could have been any other stray, but
she was nothing of the kind. She carried an implanted microchip --
one put there by a loving owner -- and it revealed an intriguing
story: the cat belonged to a local family, had been lost on a trip
two months earlier, and had traveled 200 miles (322 km) in that time
to arrive back in her hometown. Her journey inspired a spate of
articles looking for an explanation for how this one cat, and a few
others who’ve made similar trips, managed such impressive feats of
navigation. The response from many eminent animal researchers was the
same: “No idea.”

Part of what navigating animals do is not entirely surprising.
Planetarium studies reveal that some animals steer by the stars, an
approach that’s comfortingly familiar to Homo sapiens but practiced
by organisms as distant as the nocturnal dung beetle, which, as one
recent study revealed, can roll its precious gob of poo in a straight
line only as long as the Milky Way is in view. One of the most
accomplished animal navigation researchers of the twentieth century,
naturalist Ronald Lockley, found that captured seabirds released far
from their homes could make a beeline back so long as either the sun
or the stars were visible; an overcast sky threw them off so much
that many never made it back.

But plenty of other navigating animals are using something most
humans regularly forget exists: the Earth’s magnetic field. In
illustrations, the field is usually depicted as a series of loops
that emerge from the south pole and reenter the planet at the north
pole, and extend out to the edges of our atmosphere, sort of like a
cosmic whisk. Our compass needles are designed to align with the
field, and in the last few decades it’s become clear that numerous
animals can find their way by feeling some of its various field.

To study this, he and colleagues collected baby sea turtles a few
hours before they would have left the nest on their own and put them
in pools surrounded by magnetic coils. The coils were designed to
reproduce the Earth’s magnetic field at specific points along the
turtles’ migration. Reliably, the young turtles oriented themselves
and swam in the direction relative to the magnetic field that, had
they been in the open ocean, would have kept them on course. Lohmann
has tested this with 8 different locations along their route, and in
each case the turtles head in just the direction required to get them
to their destination. The turtles may not know where they are in any
big-picture way -- as Lohmann says, they may not see themselves as
blinking spots on a map -- but they have inherited a sense that
should they feel a particular pull from the magnetic field, well,
better take a right.


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Chug! Chug! Chug! Why More Women Are Binge Drinking
( TIME )

It’s not just fraternity brothers who are guzzling one beer too
many. Women and high school girls are equally likely to drink too much.

According to the latest survey from the U.S. Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly 14 million U.S. women binge
drink about three times a month, downing about six beverages per
binge. The survey defined binge drinking as consuming five or more
drinks in one sitting for men and four or more for women.

It’s not unusual for young women ages 18 to 34, as well as high
schoolers, to overindulge; 1 in 8 women and 1 in 5 high school girls
report drinking to excess. But binge drinking accounts for about
23,000 deaths among women and girls in the U.S. each year.

Long bouts of drinking typical of binges can lead to unpleasant, not
to mention potentially dangerous, consequences for both men and
women. In her award-winning photography project “Keg Stand Queens,”
photographer Amanda Berg documented her friends’ drinking habits
during parties at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The
collection includes images of underage girls in sexually compromising
positions, passed out on lawns and leaning over toilet seats.

“All of these were clearly oriented to women. The data showed these
products were most popular among females of every age group and were
most popular among young drinkers. Those of us involved in alcohol
prevention called alcopops ‘beer with training wheels,’” says Dr.
David Jernigan. “Women traditionally drank less than men -- and
still do -- but there has been a very intentional effort to increase
it, and this has started exposing young women to products and
marketing at high rates. The numbers are not surprising to us and are
of great concern.”

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戦闘任務につく女性たち 粉砕される「真鍮の天井」

Women In Combat: Shattering the “Brass Ceiling”
( TIME )

The Pentagon will declare Thursday that it is lifting a ban on women
serving in combat -- a decision essentially rendered a fait accompli
by more than decade of war in Afghanistan and Iraq, where many women
served ably under fire. Outgoing Defense Secretary Leon Panetta is
expected to make the announcement, based on a recommendation from
Army General Martin Dempsey, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The historic change will open up hundreds of thousands of jobs in
infantry, armor and other previously all-male units from which women
have been formally barred under a 1994 Pentagon rule. Ultimately,
they could even be allowed to serve in special-operations units,
including the Army’s Delta Force and the Navy’s SEALs.

Women who missed the opportunity to serve in combat cheered the
change. “All jobs should be based on qualifications, not gender,”
says Darlene Iskra, the first woman ever to command a Navy ship, and
a Battleland contributor.

But the decision goes deeper than the post-9/11 wars. With an all-
volunteer military, the Pentagon needs women in its ranks. Beyond
that, the fluid nature of the 21st Century battlefield has rendered
long-ago battle maps, with a clear demarcation between front lines
and rear echelons, as dated as muskets and bayonets. Basically, it
has become untenable for the U.S. military to pretend its female
troops are not engaged in combat.

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サンディー・フック銃撃事件 ランザはなぜ学校を狙ったのか

Sandy Hook Shooting: Why Did Lanza Target a School?
( TIME )

The killing of 26 people, including 20 children, at Sandy Hook
Elementary in Connecticut has understandably shocked the nation, and
details are just beginning to emerge about the shooter, Adam Lanza, a
20-year-old man who also murdered his mother. Events like these
inevitably reopen debates about gun control, or more tenuously lead
people to complain about American culture itself. Yet on the very
same day, a 36-year-old Chinese man attacked 22 children with a knife
at a primary school in China, suggesting that there is a critical
factor with mass homicides that gets far less attention.

For all the disbelief and dismay, we actually know pretty well that
most such events are committed by individuals with a particular set
of characteristics. As my colleagues Mark Coulson, Jane Barnett and I
noted in a 2011 article in the Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations,
school shooters have generally been found to 1) have a history of
antisocial-personality traits, 2) suffer from mental illnesses such
as depression or psychosis and 3) tend to obsess about how others,
whether other individuals or society at large, have wronged them.
(These conclusions are similar to the findings of a 2002 U.S. Secret
Service report on school shootings.) These individuals seethe with
rage and hatred and despondency, until they decide to lash out at
individuals or a society they believe has done them great wrong.
Mental health, as well as our failure to address it as a society, is
at the core of these events.

Not all mass homicide perpetrators target schools, but schools do
seem to be an unusually common target. People wonder why angry men
(and an occasional woman) so often target innocent children who have
done them no wrong. In the case of Sandy Hook, although early reports
suggested that Lanza’s mother, Nancy Lanza, may have worked there,
the school superintendent has since clarified that she was not a
teacher or a substitute. In many other cases, there is no obvious
connection. Watching the horror and great sadness that has descended
over the nation in the past 24 hours, we have our answer. These
perpetrators have lashed out against society in the most vicious way
possible, inflicting the most pain that they could. That is the point
of targeting a school.

In the Shadow of Sandy Hook, a Powerful Pro-Gun Organization Keeps
( TIME )

As one of early America’s industrial centers, Connecticut was a
hotbed of weapons manufacturing -- so much so that it was referred to
in the 19th century as the “Arsenal of America.” In 1851, Samuel
Colt, inventor of the revolver, built a factory on a parcel of land
on the banks of the Connecticut River near Hartford. The legendary
saying attached to Colt was “Abe Lincoln may have freed all men, but
Sam Colt made them equal.”

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「パワーボール」5億ドルという賞金 宝くじの不運な勝者たちの大悲劇

$500 Million Powerball Jackpot: The Tragic Stories of the Lottery’s
Unluckiest Winners
( TIME )

Wednesday’s Powerball jackpot is now expected to be an unimaginable
$500 million, the second-biggest jackpot in history behind March’s
$656 Mega Millions pot. But winning the lottery can have its
pitfalls. Distant relatives and fair-weather friends can come
clamoring for their share; spouse can turn on spouse; kidnapping and
murder can suddenly become very real threats. And sometimes, the
greatest danger to the newly well-off can be the winners themselves.
Here are ten cautionary tales of some of the biggest-winning losers
in lottery history.

Andrew “Jack” Whittaker

Whittaker may have been the wealthiest man ever to win a major
lottery jackpot. When the 55-year-old West Virginia construction
company president won a $315 million Powerball jackpot in December
2002 -- at the time, the largest jackpot ever won by a single ticket
-- he was already worth some $17 million. And Whittaker knew to
distribute his new mega-wealth, pledging to give 10 percent of his
fortune to Christian charities, donating $14 million to his Jack
Whittaker Foundation, and even giving a $123,000 house, a new Dodge
Ram Truck, and $50,000 in cash to the woman who worked at the
convenience store where he had purchased his winning ticket.

But even Whittaker couldn’t escape his own demons. Beset by legal
difficulties and personal problems, he began drinking heavily and
frequenting strip clubs. On Aug. 5, 2003, thieves stole $545,000 from
his car in a West Virginia strip club parking lot while he was
inside. In January 2007, Whittaker reported to the police that
thieves had completely emptied his bank accounts. On Jan. 25, 2004,
robbers once again broke into his car, stealing an estimated $200,000
in cash that was later recovered. And a string of personal tragedies
followed. On Sept. 17, 2004, his granddaughter’s boyfriend was found
dead from a drug overdose in Whittaker’s home. Three months later,
the granddaughter also died of a drug overdose. Her mother, Ginger
Whittaker Bragg, died five years later on July 5, 2009. Whittaker
himself is alleged to be broke -- a claim he made as early as January
2007 for failing to pay a women who successfully sued him. He’s also
being sued by Caesars Atlantic City casino for bouncing $1.5 million
worth of checks to cover gambling losses. “I wish I’d torn that
ticket up,” he sobbed to reporters at the time of his daughter’s

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