2012年10月02日

セックスが素晴らしいのは、あなたが興奮しているから


Why Sex Doesn’t Gross You Out When You’re Aroused
( TIME )

If you think about it, sex is actually sort of disgusting, what with
all the sweat, saliva, fluids and smells. So much so that a group of
researchers from the Netherlands got to thinking, How do people enjoy
sex at all?

According to their small new study, people -- at least women -- may
be able to get over the “ick” factor associated with sex by getting
turned on. Sexual arousal overrides the natural disgust response, the
researchers found, and allows women to willingly engage in behaviors
that they might normally find repugnant.

The study, conducted by scientists at the University of Groningen,
involved 90 women who were randomly assigned to one of three groups.
One group watched a “female friendly” erotic video; another watched
a video of high-adrenaline sports like skydiving or rafting, designed
to be arousing but not sexually so; and the third group watched a
neutral video clip of a train.

Afterward, all the women were asked to perform 16 tasks, most of them
icky, like drinking from a cup with a bug in it (the bug was fake),
wiping their hands with a used tissue, eating a cookie that was next
to a live worm or putting their finger in a tray of used condoms.

The researchers found that the women who watched the sexually
arousing video rated the unpleasant tasks as less disgusting than did
their counterparts who were not sexually aroused. They were also more
likely to complete more of the tasks, suggesting that sexual arousal
not only dampens the disgust response but also influences how much
women are willing to do.

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2012年09月28日

サイコパスの素質 成功した大統領の共通点は何か


Psychopathic Traits: What Successful Presidents Have in Common
( TIME )

Political partisans delight in labeling opposition leaders as malign
or even psychopathic -- but it turns out that U.S. presidents with
high levels of certain psychopathic traits may actually do better on
the job, no matter what their party affiliation, according to new
research.

The study, which was based on presidential performance ratings and
personality assessments by hundreds of historians and biographers in
several different surveys, found that one psychopathic characteristic
in particular was linked to success in presidency: fearless dominance.

It’s not to say that American presidents are full-blown psychopaths
-- they didn’t rate high in all categories of psychopathic traits.
Overall, the study found, presidents tended to be more like
psychopaths than the general population in their level of fearless
dominance, but they didn’t show a psychopathic excess of impulsive
antisocial behavior. Although “some might think presidents are
extremely psychopathic,” Lilienfeld says, the combination of traits
that make them successful can’t all be characterized as such. “They
need to be bold and self confident to be willing to run, but they
also have to have an amazing capacity to delay gratification and a
lot of impulse control, at least in some domains.”

Topping the chart in fearless dominance were Teddy Roosevelt and John
F. Kennedy, with FDR, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton not far behind.
George W. Bush came in 10th on this measure -- Rutherford Hayes,
Zachary Taylor, Martin Van Buren and Andrew Jackson were also in the
top 10 -- illustrating that fearless dominance isn’t always
associated with positive decision-making, or success.

Indeed, it’s a double-edged sword: if your boldness allows you to
ignore both your own fears and the concerns of others, it can be easy
to veer off into recklessness, dismissing important problems that
should rightly grab your attention. A recent New York Times op-ed on
George W. Bush’s refusal to heed early warnings from the CIA about
Osama bin Laden’s planned attacks on America suggests as much.

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posted by K.Andoh | Comment(0) | 米国 | このブログの読者になる |

2012年09月25日

クリントン元大統領が楽観主義を弁護する


The Case for Optimism
( TIME )

Our world is more interdependent than ever. Borders have become more
like nets than walls, and while this means that wealth, ideas,
information and talent can move freely around the globe, so can the
negative forces shaping our shared fates. The financial crisis that
started in the U.S. and swept the globe was further proof that--for
better and for worse--we can't escape one another.

There are three big challenges with our interdependent world:
inequality, instability and unsustainability. The fact that half the
world's people live on less than $2 a day and a billion people on
less than $1 a day is stark evidence of inequality, which is
increasing in many places. We're feeling the effects of instability
not only in the global economic slowdown but also in the violence,
popular disruptions and political conflicts in the Middle East and
elsewhere. And the way we produce and use energy is unsustainable,
changing our climate in ways that cast a shadow over our children's
future.

But I firmly believe that progress changes consciousness, and when
you change people's consciousness, then their awareness of what is
possible changes as well--a virtuous circle. So it's important that
the word gets out, that people realize what's working. That where
there's been creative cooperation coupled with a communitarian view
of our future, we're seeing real success. That's the reason I try to
bring people together every year for the Clinton Global Initiative
(CGI). Here are five areas in which there has been concrete,
measurable and reproducible progress.

1 TECHNOLOGY

PHONES MEAN FREEDOM

Forget what you may have heard about a digital divide or worries that
the world is splintering into "info haves" and "info have-nots." The
fact is, technology fosters equality, and it's often the relatively
cheap and mundane devices that do the most good. A 2010 U.N. study,
for example, found that cell phones are one of the most effective
advancements in history to lift people out of poverty.

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2012年09月21日

日本の苛立ち 中国紛争で米国は支援してくれるのか


Japan Frets over U.S. Support in China Dispute
( TIME )

When the U.S. Defense Secretary arrives in Asia this weekend, his
biggest challenge may not be convincing China that America will give
its full support to longtime ally Japan in the escalating dispute
over islands in the East China Sea. His biggest challenge may be
convincing Japan.

“There is a perception in Japan that the U.S. commitment is
ambiguous,” says Yoichiro Sato, director of international strategic
studies at Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University in southern Japan.
“If China thinks Japan will hesitate to respond or that America will
hesitate, that will embolden the Chinese. It’s better that America
sends a clear, explicit message now than have to respond to something
worse later.”

Officially, the U.S. takes no position on the Senkaku-Diaoyu dispute
or the many other conflicting territorial claims that are upsetting
the region. Under the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty, the U.S. is
obligated to respond to any attack on Japan or its territory. Pressed
to declare whether that security umbrella includes Senkaku/Diaoyu,
U.S. officials stated publicly that the treaty applies to “all areas
under Japanese administration” -- a seemingly clear nod to
Senkaku/Diaoyu.

But Sato says that’s not clear enough. The alliance also calls for
Japan to take “primary responsibility” for territorial defense.
That could give the U.S. a loophole to avoid confronting its most
important trading partner and leave Japan on its own, he says.

Brad Glosserman, executive director of the Pacific Forum CSIS in
Honolulu, says there’s little doubt that the U.S. would respond if
shooting were to break out between China and Japan. The key,
Glosserman says, is to make sure the Japanese know exactly what they
can count on from the U.S. -- and what, if anything, they can’t.

“The U.S. will be there, because if we aren’t, our credibility is
shot and the Japanese will never trust us again. That would transform
the regional security environment, and the Chinese will think they
have carte blanche,” says Glosserman. “But the problem is, do
Americans and Japanese agree on what ‘being there’ means? Does that
mean submarines? Surface warships? Helicopters with Marines
rappelling to the ground? The Americans need to understand what the
Japanese expect of them, because failure to do those things could
cause big problems.”

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2012年09月18日

「サム・バジーレ」の友人たち 映画「イノセンス・オブ・ムスリム」人名録


Friends of 'Sam Bacile': A Who's Who of the Innocence of Muslims Film
( TIME )

An Internet clip of an amateurish, virulently anti-Muslim film called
Innocence of Muslims is being identified as one of the flash points
behind the anti-U.S. demonstrations in the Middle East that led to
the death of Ambassador Chris Stevens and three others in Benghazi,
Libya, earlier this week. As journalists work to uncover more details
about the makers of the film, here’s what we know about the cast of
characters so far:

Sam Bacile

In July, a person working under this pseudonym posted a 14-minute
trailer for Innocence of Muslims on YouTube. It was widely thought to
be the filmmaker’s real name, after a man identifying himself as Sam
Bacile spoke to both the Associated Press and the Wall Street Journal
on Tuesday. Bacile identified himself as a California-based real
estate developer, either 52 or 56 years old, and claimed he was both
the writer and director of the film.

“Islam is a cancer,” he repeated to both publications. He said he
was an Israeli American who filmed and produced the two-hour movie
last year in California. Funding for the movie, he explained, came
from 100 Jewish donors, who pitched in a total of $5 million.

Public-records searches by TIME and others have yielded nothing
tangible about a Sam Bacile in California, leading many to conclude
that the name is a pseudonym. The Israeli government said it has no
record of Bacile as a citizen. Steve Klein (see below), a backer and
purported consultant on the film, told the Atlantic he was neither
Israeli nor Jewish. “This guy is totally anonymous. At this point,
no one can confirm he holds Israeli citizenship, and even if he did,
we are not involved,” Israeli Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal
Palmor told CNN.

The film allegedly calls the holy Muslim Prophet Muhammad a fraud and
shows him engaged in sex acts. Muslims believe it’s inappropriate to
depict the Prophet under any circumstances, especially insulting
ones. (In 2005, a Danish newspaper published caricatures of Muhammad
that incited riots in many Middle Eastern nations.) But the film only
started riling tempers in the Middle East last week, after the Sam
Bacile YouTube account posted an Arabic translation of the Innocence
of Muslims film.

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2012年09月14日

男が美を求めず、女が富を気にしなくなったとき


When Men Stop Seeking Beauty and Women Care Less About Wealth
( TIME )

Men seek youth and beauty, while women focus on wealth and status --
evolutionary psychologists have long claimed that these general
preferences in human mating are universal and based on biology. But
new research suggests that they may in fact be malleable: as men and
women achieve financial equality, in terms of earning power and
economic freedom, these mate-seeking preferences by gender tend to
wane.

The idea behind the evolutionary theory is simple: biologically,
sperm are cheap -- men make 1,500 sperm per second on average. In
contrast, eggs are expensive; typically, women release just one egg a
month and each baby girl is born with her full lifetime’s supply of
egg cells. (Yes, this means that the egg from which you sprang was
formed inside your maternal grandmother.) What’s more, pregnancy
costs a woman nine months, while the initial male contribution to
parenthood generally requires no more than a few minutes.

As a result, evolutionary theorists argue, women will be far more
selective than men about their sexual partners, and they will tend to
seek those with the most resources to invest in their children. Men,
on the other hand, can afford to be less choosy. They’ll care far
less about a woman’s ability to provide and far more about her basic
signs of fertility, such as her youth and the symmetry of her facial
features -- a characteristic associated with beauty and good health.

But while these mate-seeking preferences may have made sense when
humans first evolved -- and subsequently shaped our unconscious
desires -- the world has changed since our species dwelled in caves.
And so, researchers at the University of York in the U.K. wanted to
know whether factors that characterize modern-day society, such as
women’s increased earning power and status, made a difference.

To figure out if that’s true, the researchers ranked nations
according to a new measure of gender equity introduced by the World
Economic Forum in 2006. Within various societies, they looked for
relationships between the gender gap and how much of a difference
there was between male and female mate preferences. And indeed, the
researchers found, the greater the equality of power between the
genders, the more similar were the traits that both men and women
sought in potential mates. In Finland, the country with the greatest
gender parity among the 10 countries included in the more current of
the two surveys, there was a far smaller difference between male and
female preferences than in Turkey, which had the biggest gender gap.

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2012年09月11日

ストレスでくたくたの男性が太った女性を好むわけ


Why Stressed-Out Men Prefer Heavier Women
( TIME )

Most men prefer leggy and lean women, Gisele Bundchen lookalikes,
right? Not necessarily. In fact, the body type that a man finds
attractive can change depending on his environment and circumstances,
a new study finds: when under stress, for instance, men prefer
heavier women.

The study, published in the journal PLoS ONE, reports that when men
were placed in stressful situations, then asked to rate the
attractiveness of women of varying body sizes, they tended to prefer
beefier frames, compared with unstressed men whose tastes skewed
thinner.

“This suggests that our body size preferences are not innate, but
are flexible,” said study co-author Martin Tovee of Newcastle
University in the U.K., in an email, noting that they may be
influenced by our particular environment and resources.

The findings fall in line with evolutionary theories that suggest
when resources are scarce or unpredictable, a woman’s thin physique
may signal illness, frailty and the inability to reproduce. Indeed,
Tovee and colleague Viren Swami of the University of Westminster in
London have previously found that men under trying conditions -- like
extreme hunger -- tend to rate heavier women as more attractive. The
researchers suggest also that underlying biological mechanisms, such
as blood sugar and hormone levels, are major players in how we
perceive our surroundings.

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2012年09月07日

ムーン・サンミョン、1920〜2012年 死せる救世主は巨万の富を築いた


Sun Myung Moon, 1920 - 2012: The Death of a Messiah Who Made It Rich
( TIME )

The Rev. Sun Myung Moon was proof that charisma is not necessary to
start a religion: organization is. Born in 1920 in what is now
communist-ruled North Korea, Moon survived the battles that split the
peninsula to establish a mud-and-cardboard church in the refugee-
packed South. Through decades of steady, meticulous expansion, his
Unification Church became exceedingly wealthy; and while it was
controversial and divisive, it also became the first global
expression of resurgent Korean culture. Moon’s organizing principle
was the family -- with himself and his second wife as the true mother
and father of all adherents, holding autocratic rule over marriage
and sex -- and it was an idea that would prove key to the
indoctrination of members from the 1960s generation onward, who had
grown estranged from their real parents but still idealized the
archetype. Hailing from all over the world, the Moonies, as they were
often derisively called, would help build the fortunes of Moon and
his family -- be it income from selling roses on the street or
publishing newspapers in the U.S. and South Korea. At Moon’s death
from pneumonia at the age of 92 on Sunday, however, his biological
sons and daughters -- all 14 of them -- may be gearing up for a
dynastic battle over their inheritance. It was evidence that even the
most allegedly divine of families are unhappy in their own ways.

Americans would only confront Moon and his church in the 1970s,
hurling the charge of cult against them and sending deprogrammers to
take back young people who had been recruited by his missionaries.
But Moon had sent his first representative to the U.S. in 1959 (the
organization was already active in Japan); indeed, he would tour the
States himself in 1965. His name -- with the two celestial orbs so
clearly evoked -- may have added a layer of extraterrestriality to
him for English speakers (sun and moon vanish in other
transliterations of the original Korean, as in Seon-myong Mun). But
at a time when young Americans -- in fact, young people all over the
postindustrial world -- were questioning the bases of family and
belief, Moon’s recalibration of those ideals must have come as
particularly insidious. His appropriation of the marriage ceremony as
the centerpiece of his new faith was both bizarre and revolutionary.
In spectacularly staged mass rituals, Moon and his wife would preside
over the union of thousands of couples being wed at once. Most had
never met each other. Matches were made across nationality and race.
He particularly liked to marry people from Japan and Korea, countries
with deep historical animosity. It was in keeping with the founder’s
ideas of unification on all levels. Marriage was just another arena
to practice what he preached. What’s love got to do with it?

Unification meant several things to Moon. The official name of the
church when he founded it was the Holy Spirit Association for the
Unification of World Christianity. And throughout his career, Moon
would be constantly reaching out an ecumenical hand to the various
divisions of Christianity. But unification also reflected the very
modern Korean notion of reuniting the divided peninsula. Not only was
his church called Unification, the business conglomerate that grew
out of it was similarly named in Korean -- Tongil. Indeed, though
Moon’s politics converged with the rightist policies of the generals
who ruled South Korea in the first decades after the war, he himself
made trips to the North to befriend the dictatorial Kim dynasty of
Pyongyang. Those visits rarely met with the approbation of the South,
but Moon never stopped cultivating the leaders of the communist regime.

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